In Opposition the Coalition was usually maintained, but otherwise still generally continued to work in co-operation with the Liberal Party of Australia. In Queensland however, they were the coalition party between and , after which they merged with the junior Liberal Party of Australia to form the Liberal National Party.
The current federal leader and Deputy Prime Minister is Barnaby Joyce, both were elected in a party-room ballot on 11 February , following the retirement of former leader and Deputy Prime Minister Warren Truss and the elevation of former deputy leader Joyce. Australias first Country Party was founded in by Harry J. At the federal election the state-based Country Parties won federal seats in New South Wales, Victoria and they also began to win seats in state parliaments.
Graham, the graziers who operated the sheep stations were politically conservative. They disliked the Labor Party, which represented their workers, and feared that Labor governments would pass legislation and listen to foreigners. The graziers were satisfied with the organisation of their industry, opposed any change in land tenure and labour relations, and advocated lower tariffs, low freight rates.
On the other hand, Graham reports, the farmers, not the graziers. The farmers advocated government intervention in the market price support schemes.
The graziers often politically and financially supported the Country party, which in turn made the Country party more conservative, at the election, it won enough seats to deny the Nationalists an overall majority, and was the Nationalists only realistic coalition partner. However, Page let it be known that his party would not serve under Hughes, Page then entered negotiations with the Nationalists new leader, Stanley Bruce, for a coalition government.
Pages terms were stiff—five seats in a Cabinet of 11, including the Treasurer portfolio, nonetheless, Bruce readily agreed, and the Bruce-Page Ministry was formed—thus beginning the tradition of the partys leader ranking second in Coalition cabinets. The coalition was re-formed under Archie Cameron in , and continued until October despite the election of Arthur Fadden as leader after the Election, Fadden was well regarded within conservative circles and proved to be a loyal deputy to Menzies in the difficult circumstances of When Menzies was forced to resign as Prime Minister, the UAP was so bereft of leadership that Fadden briefly succeeded him, however, the two independents who had been propping up the government rejected Faddens budget and brought the government down.
She remains an Honorary Life Member of the student union for her efforts, after graduating, she was employed as a teacher and later lectured at Monash University.
McKenzies electorate office is in the regional Victorian city of Bendigo, Senator McKenzie is opposed to gay marriage, despite opposition from her gay brother, who wrote a letter to a local regional paper, the Bendigo Advertiser, to express his dismay. Senator McKenzie is also a champion of guns and firearms, she enjoys hunting animals for sport, clay target shooting, official website Summary of parliamentary voting for Senator Bridget McKenzie on TheyVoteForYou. Chester was born in Sale, Victoria, the son of a plumber, Chester contested Gippsland East as the National Party candidate at the Victorian state election, losing to independent Craig Ingram.
McGauran retained his party endorsement and was re-elected later that year, Chester was elected to the House of Representatives at the by-election caused by the resignation of Peter McGauran, and re-elected at the and elections.
Dan Tehan MP, since 18 February It was called Minister for Repatriation from the appointment of the first Minister, stanley Bruce chose not to include a Minister for Repatriation in his ministry, but his successor James Scullin restored it, and it has continued ever since, under different names. Between and there was also a Minister in charge of War Service Homes.
In September , she was promoted to cabinet as Minister for Small Business, following the federal election, ODwyer was appointed federal Minister for Revenue and Financial Services. ODwyer was educated at Presbyterian Ladies College and the University of Melbourne, Costello decided in not to seek another term of office at the next federal election.
On 17 September , ODwyer was pre-selected to stand as the Liberal Party candidate for Higgins at the next election, Peter Costello then announced his resignation from Parliament in October He stated that he chose to retire ahead of the federal election as a contribution to renewal of the Liberal Party.
A by-election was held on 5 December , ODwyer was considered a shoo-in, especially since the Labor Party did not contest the seat.
In winning preselection, ODwyer became the first woman to win Liberal Party preselection for a seat in metropolitan Melbourne. Malcolm Turnbull successful won the spill and was sworn in as Prime Minister on 15 September , Turnbull introduced a radical overhaul of the cabinet, which saw ODwyer appointed to Cabinet as Minister for Small Business and Assistant Treasurer. It suggested the Liberal primary vote may have decreased substantially, however, the poll proved to be wildly inaccurate, with ODwyer winning comfortably.
She is married to Jon Mant and has two sisters, and one brother and her daughter, Olivia, was born in ODwyer is currently pregnant with her child, making her the first Cabinet Minister expected to give birth whilst in office.
Prior to his election to parliament at the federal election, Laundy defended the ABC, responding that he does not defend their content, but their right to say what they want. He said that the beauty of living in a democracy is that if you dont like what youre hearing, what youre watching, or what youre looking at on the internet and he also said that it is not the role of the ABC to be patriotic. The changes were dropped after widespread public outrage, and opposition from some Liberal backbenchers, including Laundy, Phillip Ruddock, and Ken Wyatt, an indigenous Member of Parliament.
Laundy is co-chair of the Parliamentary Friends of Palestine Group, on 5 June , the Abbott Government announced the term occupied would no longer be used to describe East Jerusalem. Laundy publicly opposed the shift in language, saying that the area was occupied by armed Israeli forces, Laundy does not support same-sex marriage, but had previously supported a conscience vote on the issue.
In September , he declared that he no longer supported a free vote, in , pro same-sex marriage activists sent unmarked letters filled with glitter to the offices of several Federal Coalition MPs. Laundys office was locked down until police determined the packages were harmless. Laundy labelled it an irresponsible act noting that to send any undeclared substance through the mail to the office of a Member of Parliament will inevitably cause alarm.
Laundy was shown photographs of a dead Syrian toddler fleeing the Syrian civil war by his daughter at the table, which brought him. Laundy was subsequently appointed as the Assistant Minister for Multicultural Affairs. The Queen is represented by the Governor-General, through both Houses, however, there is a fused executive, drawn from the Westminster System. The upper house, the Senate, consists of 76 members, twelve for each state, Senators are elected using the single transferable vote proportional representation system and as a result, the chamber features a multitude of parties vying for power.
The government of the day must achieve the confidence of this House in order to gain and remain in power, although elections can be called early, each 3 years the full House of Representatives and half of the Senate is dissolved and goes up for reelection.
The two Houses meet in separate chambers of Parliament House on Capital Hill in Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, the Commonwealth of Australia came into being on 1 January with the federation of the six Australian colonies. The only building in Melbourne that was enough to accommodate the 14, guests was the western annexe of the Royal Exhibition Building.
After the official opening, from to , the Parliament met in Parliament House, Melbourne and it had always been intended that the national Parliament would sit in a new national capital. This was a compromise at Federation due to the rivalry between the two largest Australian cities, Sydney and Melbourne, which wished to become the new capital.
The site of Canberra was selected for the location of the capital city in A competition was announced on 30 June to design Parliament House, however, due to the start of World War I the next month, the competition was cancelled. It was re-announced in August , but again postponed indefinitely on 24 November , in the meantime, John Smith Murdoch, the Commonwealths Chief Architect, worked on the design as part of his official duties.
He had little enthusiasm for the project, as he felt it was a waste of money. Nevertheless, he designed the building by default, the construction of Old Parliament House, as it is called today, was commenced on 28 August and completed in early It was designed to house the parliament for a maximum of 50 years until a permanent facility could be built, the building was opened on 9 May by the Duke and Duchess of York.
The opening ceremonies were both splendid and incongruous, given the sparsely built nature of Canberra of the time and its small population, the building was extensively decorated with British Empire and Australian flags and bunting. It is located in south-west rural New South Wales, generally following the Murrumbidgee River valley, the division was proclaimed in , and was one of the original 75 divisions to be contested at the first federal election.
The division was named after the Riverina region in which it is located, the division covers a primarily agricultural area. The current Member for Riverina, since the federal election, is Michael McCormack, in the redistribution, the division was abolished and replaced by Riverina-Darling, but in the redistribution it was re-created.
Division of Riverina - Australian Electoral Commission. Kay Hull — She was born in Guyra, New South Wales, and was a small business owner and operator before entering politics. She was a member of the Wagga Wagga City Council , a small caricature of her is displayed on a Regional Express Saab aircraft. In March , she was awarded the Freedom of City by Wagga Wagga city council for her tenacity, resilience, courage and conviction in her representation of her constituents.
The central business district is focused around the commercial and recreational grid bounded by Best and Tarcutta Streets and the Murrumbidgee River, the main shopping street of Wagga is Baylis Street which becomes Fitzmaurice Street at the northern end. The city is in a valley and much of the city has a problem with urban salinity. The original inhabitants of the Wagga Wagga region were the Wiradjuri people, in , Charles Sturt became the first European explorer to visit the future site of the city.
The town, positioned on the site of a ford across the Murrumbidgee, was surveyed and gazetted as a village in , in , the town was gazetted as a municipality. During the negotiations leading to the federation of the Australian colonies, during World War I the town was the starting point for the Kangaroo recruitment march.
The Great Depression and the resulting hardship saw Wagga Wagga become the centre of a movement for the Riverina region. After the war, Wagga Wagga was proclaimed as a city in , in the city was amalgamated with the neighbouring Kyeamba and Mitchell Shires to form the City of Wagga Wagga local government area.
Wagga Wagga is at the end of the Riverina region where the slopes of the Great Dividing Range flatten. This location astride some of the transport routes in the nation has made Wagga Wagga an important heavy truck depot for a number of companies including Toll Holdings.
Wagga Wagga is upstream from the Riverina plain in the mid-catchment range of the Murrumbidgee River in an alluvial valley confined by low bedrock hills, much of Wagga Wagga is on heavy clay soils in a large drainage basin with a small catchment discharge point. Groundwater therefore cannot leave easily, leading to Wagga Wagga having a problem with waterlogged soil and soil salination, urban salination in Wagga Wagga is now the subject of a large multi-pronged approach to prevent further salination and reclaim salt-affected areas.
The main shopping street of Wagga Wagga is Baylis Street which becomes Fitzmaurice Street at the northern end, the Wollundry Lagoon is the water focus of the city centre and has been a key element in the development and separation of the north and south parts of the city centre.
Major industrial areas of Wagga Wagga include the suburb of Bomen. Thomas Mitchell, the surveyor who served under Lord Wellington named many of the streets after Peninsula War veterans, Wagga Wagga has a temperate climate with hot dry summers and cool to cold winters. Australians — Australians, colloquially known as Aussies, are people associated with Australia, sharing a common history, culture, and language.
Present-day Australians are citizens of the Commonwealth of Australia, governed by its nationality law, the majority of Australians descend from the peoples of the British Isles. Many early settlements were penal colonies, and transported convicts made up a significant proportion of the population in most colonies, large-scale immigration did not occur until the s, following a series of gold rushes.
A small percentage of present-day Australians descend from these peoples, the development of a separate Australian identity and national character is most often linked with the period surrounding the First World War, which gave rise to the concept of the Anzac spirit. Immigration from the Middle East, south and east Asia, Australian culture has diverged significantly since British settlement. Australians are referred to as Aussie and Antipodean, Australians were historically referred to as Colonials, British and British subjects.
Historically, European immigrants had great influence over Australian history and society, since soon after the beginning of British settlement in , people of European descent have formed the majority of the population in Australia.
The majority of Australians are of British — English, Scottish, Welsh, Cornish, or Manx —, although some observers stress Australias convict history, the vast majority of early settlers came of their own free will. Most of the first Australian settlers came from London, the Midlands and the North of England, anglo-Celtic Australians have been highly influential in shaping the nations culture. By the mids, the numbers of settlers had overtaken the convict population.
In ,60 percent of the Australian population had been born in Australia, out of the remaining 40 percent,34 percent had been born in the British Isles, and 6 percent were of European origin, mainly from Germany and Scandinavia. In the s, Scots-born immigrants constituted 12 percent of the Australian population, there were 1.
The European population grew from 0. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south and it has a coast line with the Tasman Sea on its east side. In March , the population of New South Wales was 7. Just under two-thirds of the population,4. It originally comprised a more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at th meridian east in , in addition, the colony also included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemens Land, Lord Howe Island, and Norfolk Island.
During the 19th century, most of the area was detached to form separate British colonies that eventually became New Zealand. The prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40, to 60, years ago, before European settlement there were an estimated , Aboriginal people in the region.
The Bundjalung people are the custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land New Wales, however, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he revised the wording to New South Wales. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, macquaries legacy is still evident today. During the 19th century, large areas were separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia, Victoria.
The town is situated about 21 kilometres west from Old Junee and 32 kilometres north from Downside, at the census, Marrar had a population of Marrar Post Office opened on 1 April Kildare has six houses, all of which are named after people of peace, each house has its own colour. The six houses are as follows, Romero, King, Theresa, Gandhi, Oodgeroo, since its founding in Kildare has performed five musicals of a high standard.
Accompanying these musical performances, Kildare Catholic College hosts an annual abridged Shakespeare production, with s production being of Twelfth Night or What you Will. The paper started its life as The Wagga Wagga Advertiser and was founded by two wealthy local pastoralists, Auber George Jones and Thomas Darlow and it was first printed on 10 December , only 80 years after the commencement of European settlement in Australia.
The paper is older than a number of city newspapers and is one of the oldest regional newspapers in the country. When it commenced publication, Wagga Wagga was also serviced by the Wagga Wagga Express, the Wagga Wagga Advertiser originally sold for sixpence and was printed bi-weekly in the form of a four-page broadsheet, but became a tri-weekly publication in On 3 January the newspaper was renamed The Daily Advertiser, other than normal daily publication the paper has on occasion printed a special edition such as the issue of 7.
In the newspaper reduced in size from a broadsheet to a tabloid format, Rural Press bought Riverina, five weeks before Rural Press merged into Fairfax Media, The Daily Advertiser is currently a subsidiary of Fairfax. Australian federal election, — Federal elections were held in Australia on 9 October All seats in the House of Representatives and 40 seats in the member Senate were up for election, independents, Peter Andren, Tony Windsor, Bob Katter The Nationals had candidates in 9 seats where three-cornered-contests existed, with Labor won four seats from the Coalition, Adelaide, Hindmarsh, Parramatta, the Coalition thus had a net gain of four seats.
Labor, meanwhile, received the new seat of Bonner and the redistributed Wakefield, the Labor Party regained the seat of Cunningham, which had been lost to the Greens in a by-election in The opposition Australian Labor Party polled Both the Australian Democrats and One Nation had their vote greatly reduced, after a notional distribution of preferences, the Australian Electoral Commission estimated that the Coalition had polled The Liberal Party won 74 seats, the National Party 12 seats, the Coalition also won 39 seats in the member Senate, making the Howard Government the first government to have a majority in the Senate since Even Howard had described that feat as a big ask, the results were a setback for the Labor leader, Mark Latham, and contributed to his resignation in January after assuming the leadership from Simon Crean in The defeat made Labors task more difficult, a pendulum for the House of Representatives.
Instead the party lost a net four seats in the House, there was also a 1. The Coalition gaining control of the Senate was enabled by a collapse in first preferences for the Australian Democrats, Liberal Senator John Tierney, who was dropped to number four on the Coalition Senate ticket, was also defeated.
The former One Nation leader, Pauline Hanson, failed in her bid to win a Senate seat in Queensland as an independent, the Australian Democrats polled their lowest vote since their creation in , and lost the three Senate seats they were defending.
The Australian Greens won Senate seats in Western Australia and in Tasmania and they missed seats in Victoria, Queensland and South Australia, partly because of preference deals by other parties.
Australian federal election, — The Federal election for the 42nd Parliament of Australia was held on Saturday 24 November after a day campaign, in which All seats in the House of Representatives and 40 of the seats in the member Senate were contested in the election, the Coalition had been in power since the election.
Labor won 83 of the seats in the incoming House of Representatives and this represented a seat swing to Labor. The Liberals won 55 while the Nationals won 10, with two seats retained by Independents, Labor finished with a Western Australia went against the trend, with the Liberals suffering only a 2.
Independents, Nick Xenophon Labor and the Coalition won 18 seats each in the half-Senate election, the Greens won three seats, with Independent Nick Xenophon being elected on primary votes alone. With a majority being 39 senators, when the new Senate met after 1 July , Xenophon, although reported as left-of-centre, indicated plans to work closely with the renegade National, Senator Barnaby Joyce.
If sufficient Coalition senators voted for government legislation, support from the crossbench was not required, xenophons election was at the expense of a Liberal candidate, without his presence the Coalition would have held enough Senate seats to block legislation. Compared to the previous Senate, the Greens gained one, a new Independent was elected, the Coalition lost two, and the Democrats lost all four of their seats. The informal rate of 2. Prime Minister Stanley Bruce and National Party leader Charles Blunt lost their seats in and respectively, Howard had held the seat since , and it had been in Liberal hands ever since its creation in However, successive redistributions, along with change, had made the once safe Liberal seat much friendlier to Labor.
Howards two-party majority was four percent, putting it right on the edge of seats that Labor would likely take in the event it won. Late on election night, when conceding Labor had won government, Howard also acknowledged the likelihood he had lost Bennelong to McKew, though he and he had been ahead by thin margins for most of the night, never leading by more than 0.
Preselection — Preselection is the process by which a candidate is selected, usually by a political party, to contest an election for political office. It is also referred to as candidate selection and it is a fundamental function of political parties. The preselection process may involve the partys executive or leader selecting a candidate or by some contested process, in countries that adopt Westminster-style responsible government, preselection is also the first step on the path to a position in the executive.
The selected candidate is referred to as the partys endorsed candidate. Deselection or disendorsement is the procedure, when the political party withdraws its support from one of its elected office-holders. The party may then select a replacement candidate at the subsequent election, the deselected representative is usually free to still contest the election as an Independent or as a representative of another party.
Reselection is the procedure of requiring candidates to repeat the process to retain the partys support. In politics, preselection is the process by which a candidate is selected, usually by a political party and it is also referred to as candidate selection. It is a function of political parties, affecting representation, party cohesion, legislative behaviour. In countries that adopt Westminster-style responsible government, preselection is also the first step on the path to a position in the executive, in Australia, the term has been in common usage since the s to describe the selection of candidates by political parties for public office.
One usage of the term is in describing elected public officeholders in Westminster type party systems as being selected by the voters after being preselected by their parties and it derives from Australian Labor Party preselection practices that were widely used by that party before The ALP, as well as in some states the Liberal Party, in each case, it is possible to assess the variables on a scale from open to closed or from inclusive to exclusive.
Eligibility to be a candidate in preselection is frequently bound by rules set by a political party, Preselection may also be affected by a jurisdictions electoral system. In Indonesia, for example, there is a system of public and this may include examination of issues such as personal character or internal party issues, and lead to candidates being eliminated. The bodies that most commonly preselect candidates for office are party members or party organisations such as a party executive or candidate selection committee.
However, the selectors may be a group such as all voters or registered voters. Alternatively, there may be a restricted group of selectors or selection may, in rare cases, be undertaken by an individual. Preselection may take place by a system of voting by the selectors, or there may be a system of appointment, in several countries including Australia and Canada, candidate selection is normally conducted by internal party processes at the constituency or electorate level.
Australian federal election, — A federal election was held on Saturday,21 August for members of the 43rd Parliament of Australia. The Prime Minister, government ministers and parliamentary secretaries were sworn in on 14 September by the Governor-General Quentin Bryce, the Coalition was reduced from 37 to 34 and Labor was reduced from 32 to These changes took effect in the Senate on 1 July , more than 14 million Australians were enrolled to vote at the time of the election.
The election was conducted by the Australian Electoral Commission, Labor and the Coalition each won 72 seats in the seat House of Representatives, a loss of eleven and a gain of seven respectively. Labor won their largest two-party preferred vote in Victoria and Tasmania since official two-party records began in , on the crossbench, one member of the Australian Greens, one member of the National Party of Western Australia and four independent members held the balance of power.
After gaining the support of four crossbenchers Labor was able to form a minority government, on the crossbenches, Adam Bandt won the first seat for the Greens at a general election in the seat of Melbourne.
He had previously announced he would align with Labor in the event of a hung parliament, on 1 September the Greens declared their support for Labor on confidence and supply. Andrew Wilkie, a former Greens candidate and now independent, was elected as the Member for Denison, on 2 September he declared his support for Labor on confidence and supply.
Tony Crook won the seat of OConnor for the National Party of Western Australia, there was dispute over affiliation, with some classing Crook as a member of the Coalition and including him in their Coalition totals. The WA National Party subsequently issued a statement saying in part, Crook says, In every news report and press report we see, my number is being allocated in with the Coalition and it shouldnt be.
On 6 September Crook declared his support for the Coalition on confidence and supply, on 6 May , it was announced that Crook would join the Nationals party room and be formally part of the Coalition. Bob Katter, Tony Windsor and Rob Oakeshott, all independents, were re-elected, both Katter and Windsor were successful at previous elections, while Oakeshott was elected at the Lyne by-election. All are former members of the National Party, a party in the Coalition.
However, all three said they would be open to negotiating with either side to form government and they said they would engage in discussion as a bloc but vote individually. On 7 September, Katter declared his support for the Coalition on confidence, later that day, Windsor and Oakeshott declared their support for Labor on confidence and supply.
Except for a few periods, the Liberal Party and its predecessors have operated in similar coalitions since the s. Now the Turnbull Government, the party had been elected at the federal election as the Abbott Government which took office on 18 September The party is in opposition in the states of Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia, South Australia, the partys ideology has been referred to as liberal, conservative, liberal-conservative, and classically liberal.
The Liberal Party tends to promote economic liberalism and cultural liberalism, two past leaders of the party, Sir Robert Menzies and John Howard, are Australias two longest-serving Prime Ministers.
The Liberal Party has spent more time in government than any other federal Australian political party, the contemporary Liberal Party generally advocates economic liberalism. Historically, the party has supported a higher degree of protectionism and interventionism than it has in recent decades. However, from its foundation the party has identified itself as an anti-socialist grouping of liberals, strong opposition to socialism and communism in Australia and abroad was one of its founding principles.
The partys founder and longest-serving leader Robert Menzies envisaged that Australias middle class would form its main constituency, in the s a left-wing middle class emerged that no longer voted Liberal. In country areas they either compete with or have a truce with the Nationals, Menzies was an ardent constitutional monarchist, who supported the Monarchy in Australia and links to the Commonwealth of Nations.
Today the party is divided on the question of republicanism, with some being republicans, the Menzies Government formalised Australias alliance with America in , and the party has remained a strong supporter of the mutual defence treaty.
Liberal leaders from Menzies to Malcolm Fraser generally maintained Australias high tariff levels, at that time the Liberals coalition partner, the Country Party, the older of the two in the coalition, had considerable influence over the governments economic policies.
Socially, while liberty and freedom of form the basis of its beliefs. A West Australian Liberal, Ken Wyatt, became the first Indigenous Australian elected to the House of Representatives in , the party has two factions, the conservative right and the moderate left.
Both factions support the market and differ mainly over their level of social conservatism. Australian federal election, — Federal elections were held in Australia on 3 October All seats in the House of Representatives and 40 seats in the member Senate were up for election, independents, Peter Andren The Nationals had candidates in 13 seats where three-cornered-contests existed, with The figures shown are against Liberal, tony Smith contested his seat as an independent.
The figures shown are against Labor, Pauline Hanson, a member of One Nation Party, contested the seat of Blair in this election after a redistribution, and lost to Liberal Cameron Thompson. The election returned the Member of the House of Representatives for its — term and half of Australias senators, who then served in the — Senate. Despite winning almost 51 percent of the vote and regaining much of what it had lost in its severe defeat of two years earlier, Labor fell short of forming government.
The election on 3 October was held six months earlier than required by the Constitution, prime Minister John Howard made the announcement following the launch of the coalitions Goods and Services Tax policy launch and a five-week advertising campaign. One Nation lost its lone house seat when founder and leader Pauline Hanson lost on preferences to Liberal candidate Cameron Thompson in the Queensland electorate of Blair.
In Queensland, One Nation polled The election-eve Newspoll reported Labor on a 53 percent two-party-preferred vote, on election night of 3 October, the exit poll showed Labor on a 53 percent two-party-preferred vote.
Labor made the single biggest gain by an Opposition party following an election defeat and it was only when the first returns trickled in from Western Australia that the Coalition was assured of another term.
Typically the TPP is expressed as the percentages of votes attracted by each of the two parties, e. The TPP is an indicator of how much swing has been required to change the result, taking into consideration preferences.
The TPP assumes a two-party system, i. The two-candidate-preferred vote is the result after preferences have been distributed, using instant-runoff voting, for electorates where the two candidates are from the major parties, the TCP is also the TPP.
For electorates where these two candidates are not both from the parties, preferences are notionally distributed to the two major parties to determine the TPP. Australia originally used first-past-the-post voting as used by the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, federal election full-preference instant-runoff voting has been in existence since its introduction by the government after the Swan by-election. The system has allowed the two parties to compete in many seats without splitting the conservative vote in three-cornered-contests.
Even in landslide conservative election wins such as or and it is increasingly uncommon for seats to be contested by more than one Coalition candidate, by only three seats were contested by more than one Coalition candidate, all in New South Wales.
Preferences have also been of significant relevance to the DLP, the Democrats, One Nation, the Greens, not distributing preferences was historically common in seats where a candidate received over 50 percent of the primary vote. Full preference distributions have occurred in all seats since , South Australian state elections have boundaries strategically redrawn before each election with a fairness aim based on the prior election TPP vote, the only state to do so.
Whilst every seat has a TCP result, seats where the parties have come first. In seats where the parties do not come first and second, differing TPP. When only one of two major parties contest a seat, such as at some by-elections, only a TCP result is produced, swings in Australian parliaments are more commonly associated with the TPP vote. Coalition Australia — The Coalition, also known as the Liberal—National Coalition, is a political alliance of centre-right liberal conservative parties, which has existed in Australian politics in various forms since The extent to which the parties are in alliance varies at state, a Liberal—National merger at a national level has been proposed on several occasions, without much progress.
The most notable exception to rule was in Queensland, where the National Party was generally the stronger coalition partner.
At all levels of government, the Coalitions strongest opponent is most often the Australian Labor Party, based on the traditional definition of what a Coalition is, it currently only exists in federal, New South Wales and Victorian politics. The main members of the Coalition at the level are the Liberal Party of Australia.
The Nationalists only realistic coalition partner was the two-year-old Country Party, hughes resigned, and Page then entered negotiations with the new Nationalist leader, Stanley Bruce. Nonetheless, Bruce agreed rather than force a new election, the Nationalist—Country Coalition was reelected twice, and continued in office until its defeat in The parties once again joined in a full Coalition government following the federal election, the Coalition again split following the election, but the Country Party and the UAPs successor, the present-day Liberal Party, renewed their agreement for the federal election.
They won the election as a Coalition, and stayed in office for a record 23 years, the Coalition remained together upon entering opposition in election. The Coalition suffered another break, related to the Joh for Canberra campaign, from April to August , the solidity of the Coalition is so strong that when the Liberals won outright parliamentary majorities in their own right in , and , the Coalition was retained. The Liberal Party is led by Gladys Berejiklian and the National Party by John Barilaro, led by Barry OFarrell, it won the state election in a massive swing and the election with a reduced majority, led by Baird.
The Coalition has existed in one form or another without interruption since , New South Wales is the only state where the non-Labor Coalition has never broken, and yet has also never merged. This remained the case even in , when the Liberals won a majority in their own right, the Nationals were the senior partner in the non-Labor Coalition from until the Coalition was broken in The Nationals then governed in their own right until , the Coalition was renewed in , and won power under Rob Borbidge from to In , the agreed to merge, forming the Liberal National Party.
Although it is dominated by former Nationals, it has full voting rights within the Liberal Party, Springborg stood down in , and was succeeded by former Liberal John-Paul Langbroek. Australian federal election, — A federal election to determine the members of the 44th Parliament of Australia took place on 7 September Labor had been in government since the election, Abbott was sworn in by the Governor-General, Quentin Bryce as Australias 28th Prime Minister on 18 September along with the Abbott Ministry and the members of the House of Representatives.
The 44th Parliament of Australia opened on 12th November , which is taken to be the commencement of the term of members of the House of Representatives. The new senators were sworn in by the next Governor-General Peter Cosgrove on 7 July , the proclamation dissolving the House of Representatives and formally beginning the election period, had been issued by the Governor-General, Quentin Bryce, on 5 August The writs of election were issued by Bryce for the election of members of the House of Representatives.
Voting in Australias federal elections has been compulsory since , for the House of Representatives, a preferential ballot system has been in use since , in single-member seats. For the Senate — the proportionally representative upper house — a single vote system has been in use since Elections are conducted by the Australian Electoral Commission, a special half-Senate election was conducted on 5 April in Western Australia as a result of 1, lost ballot papers.
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