The government of Lebanon has not criticized continued broadcast of antisemitic material on television. Various Palestinian organizations and individuals have been regularly accused of being antisemitic. Howard Gutman believes that much of Muslim hatred of Jews stems from the ongoing Arab—Israeli conflict and that peace would significantly reduce antisemitism. In August , Hamas refused to allow Palestinian children to learn about the Holocaust, which it called "a lie invented by the Zionists" and referred to Holocaust education as a "war crime.
Racism in Saudi Arabia against labor workers who are foreigners, mostly from developing countries. Asians maids have been persecuted victims of racism and discrimination in the country,     foreign workers have been raped, exploited, under- or unpaid, physically abused,  overworked and locked in their places of employment. The international organisation Human Rights Watch HRW describes these conditions as "near- slavery " and attributes them to "deeply rooted gender, religious, and racial discrimination".
There were several cases of antisemitism in Saudi Arabia and is common within religious circles. Saudi Arabian media often attacks Jews in books, news articles, at their Mosques and with what some describe as antisemitic satire.
Saudi Arabian government officials and state religious leaders often promote the idea that Jews are conspiring to take over the entire world; as proof of their claims they publish and frequently cite The Protocols of the Elders of Zion as factual. A study that ran from — into social attitudes by Harvard University has mapped the countries in Europe with the highest incidents of racial bias, based on data from , White Europeans.
It used the Implicit-association test a reaction-based psychological test designed to measure implicit racial bias. There were recorded well over a hundred antisemitic attacks in Belgium in The perpetrators were usually young males of immigrant background from the Middle East. In , the Belgian city of Antwerp , often referred to as Europe 's last shtetl , experienced a surge in antisemitic violence.
Bloeme Evers-Emden , an Amsterdam resident and Auschwitz survivor, was quoted in the newspaper Aftenposten in The antisemitism has become more violent. Now they are threatening to kill us. In , France experienced rising levels of Islamic antisemitism and acts that were publicized around the world. Reports related to the tensions between the children of North African Muslim immigrants and North African Jewish children.
In , over 7, members of the community petitioned for asylum in the United States, citing antisemitism in France. In the first half of , an estimated recorded acts of antisemitism took place in France, more than the whole of He also announced that he would appoint a special coordinator for fighting racism and antisemitism. The period after losing World War I led to an increased use of anti-Semitism and other racism in political discourse, for example among the right-wing Freikorps , emotions that finally culminated in the ascent of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party in The Nazi racial policy and the Nuremberg Race Laws against Jews and other non-Aryans represented the most explicit racist policies in Europe in the twentieth century.
These laws deprived all Jews including even half-Jews and quarter-Jews as well as other non-Aryans from German citizenship. Jews official title became "subject of the state". The Nuremberg Race Laws forbid racially mixed sexual relations and marriage between Aryans and at first Jews but was later extended to "Gypsies, Negroes or their bastard offspring".
As in other European countries, the Romani people faced disadvantages, including unequal treatment, discrimination, segregation and harassment. Negative stereotypes are often linked to Romani unemployment and reliance on state benefits. According to the Hungarian curia supreme court , these murders were motivated by anti-Romani sentiment and sentenced the perpetrators to life imprisonment.
Anti-Roma sentiment exists in Italy and takes the form of hostility, prejudice, discrimination or racism directed at Romani people. There's no reliable data for the total number of Roma people living in Italy, but estimates put it between , and , Many national and local political leaders engaged in rhetoric during and that maintained that the extraordinary rise in crime at the time was mainly a result of uncontrolled immigration of people of Roma origin from recent European Union member state Romania.
The mayors of Rome and Milan signed "Security Pacts" in May that "envisaged the forced eviction of up to 10, Romani people. In the early the Dutch right-wing Party for Freedom established an anti-Slavic predominantly anti-Polish and anti-Romani website, where native Dutch people could air their frustration about losing their job because of cheaper workers from Poland , Bulgaria , Romania and other non-Germanic Central and Eastern European countries.
This led to commentaries involving hate speech and other racial prejudice mainly against Poles and Roma, but also aimed at other Central and Eastern European ethnic groups. In the Netherlands , antisemitic incidents, from verbal abuse to violence, are reported, allegedly connected with Islamic youth, mostly boys from Moroccan descent. A phrase made popular during football matches against the so-called Jewish football club Ajax has been adopted by Muslim youth and is frequently heard at pro-Palestinian demonstrations: In , the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation after one year of research, revealed that anti-semitism was common among Norwegian Muslims.
Teachers at schools with large shares of Muslims revealed that Muslim students often "praise or admire Adolf Hitler for his killing of Jews", that "Jew-hate is legitimate within vast groups of Muslim students," and "Muslims laugh or command [teachers] to stop when trying to educate about the Holocaust. One Jewish father also told that his child after school had been taken by a Muslim mob though managed to escape , reportedly "to be taken out to the forest and hanged because he was a Jew".
By the beginning of the 20th century, most European Jews lived in the so-called Pale of Settlement , the Western frontier of the Russian Empire consisting generally of the modern-day countries of Poland, Lithuania, Belarus and neighboring regions. Many pogroms accompanied the Revolution of and the ensuing Russian Civil War , an estimated 70, to , civilian Jews were killed in the atrocities throughout the former Russian Empire ; the number of Jewish orphans exceeded , In the s, neo-Nazi groups inside Russia had risen to include as many as tens of thousands of people.
Some of them are hostile to Israel because they support the weak side, which they perceive the Palestinians to be. In the past recent years, Ivory Coast has seen a resurgence in ethnic tribal hatred and religious intolerance. In addition to the many victims among the various tribes of the northern and southern regions of the country that have perished in the ongoing conflict, white foreigners residing or visiting Ivory Coast have also been subjected to violent attacks.
According to a report by Human Rights Watch, the Ivory Coast government is guilty of fanning ethnic hatred for its own political ends.
In , the Young Patriots of Abidjan, a strongly nationalist organisation, rallied by the state media, plundered possessions of foreign nationals in Abidjan.
Calls for violence against whites and non-Ivorians were broadcast on national radio and TV after the Young Patriots seized control of its offices.
Rapes, beatings, and murders of persons of European and Lebanese descent followed. Thousands of expatriates and white or ethnic Lebanese Ivorians fled the country. The attacks drew international condemnation.
Slavery in Mauritania persists despite its abolition in and mostly affects the descendants of black Africans abducted into slavery who now live in Mauritania as "black Moors " or haratin and who partially still serve the "white Moors", or bidhan , as slaves. The practice of slavery in Mauritania is most dominant within the traditional upper class of the Moors.
For centuries, the haratin lower class, mostly poor black Africans living in rural areas, have been considered natural slaves by these Moors. Social attitudes have changed among most urban Moors, but in rural areas, the ancient divide remains. Niger's government eventually suspended their controversial decision to deport the Arabs.
Xenophobia in South Africa has been present in both the apartheid and post—apartheid eras. Hostility between the British and Boers exacerbated by the Second Boer War led to rebellion by poor Afrikaners who looted British-owned shops.
This effectively halted Indian immigration. The Township Franchise Ordinance of was intended to "deprive Indians of municipal franchise. In and , gangs of armed youth destroyed the homes of foreign nationals living in Johannesburg , demanding that the police work to repatriate them to their home countries. In , another widely documented series of xenophobic attacks occurred in South Africa, mostly against migrant Zimbabweans.
In the Sudan , black African captives in the civil war were often enslaved , and female prisoners were often abused sexually,  with their Arab captors claiming that Islamic law grants them permission. State Department alleged that "the Sudanese government's support of slavery and its continued military action which has resulted in numerous deaths are due in part to the victims' religious beliefs.
The government of Sudan insists that the whole matter is no more than the traditional tribal feuding over resources. They were brought by the British Empire from British India to do clerical work in imperial service. Racial discrimination has occurred against White Zimbabwean communities. The Immigration Restriction Act White Australia policy effectively barred people of non-European descent from immigrating to Australia.
There was never any specific policy titled as such, but the term was invented later to encapsulate a collection of policies that were designed to exclude people from Asia particularly China and the Pacific Islands particularly Melanesia from immigrating to Australia. The Cronulla riots were a series of race riots and outbreaks of mob violence in Sydney 's southern suburb Cronulla which resulted from strained relations between Anglo-Celtic and predominantly Muslim Lebanese Australians.
Travel warnings for Australia were issued by some countries but were later removed. These incidents were considered to be a key factor in a racially motivated confrontation the following weekend.
On 30 May , Indian students protested against what they claimed were racist attacks, blocking streets in central Melbourne. Thousands of students gathered outside the Royal Melbourne Hospital where one of the victims was admitted. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Xenophobe disambiguation. Racism in Brazil and Racial democracy. Racism in the United States.
Ethnic issues in Japan. Racism in South Korea. Islam and antisemitism , Antisemitism in the Arab world , and Xenophobia and racism in the Middle East. Racism in Israel and Anti-Arabism in Israel. Racism in the Palestinian territories. Racism in Europe and Antisemitism in Europe.
Antisemitism in the Netherlands. Racism and discrimination in Ukraine. Slavery in modern Africa. Xenophobia in South Africa. Dictionary of race, ethnicity and culture. Retrieved 18 July A critical review of current research approaches". Ethnic and Racial Studies. The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity.
Archived from the original on 21 November Retrieved 17 June Retrieved 4 March Retrieved June 11, Archived from the original PDF on June 17, Archived from the original on April 30, Retrieved April 30, An Afro-American Revolutionary Christianity.
Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved February 11, Retrieved January 31, Why these seven countries? Retrieved February 2, Retrieved 6 September Obama administration originally flagged 7 countries in Trump's order". Retrieved December 15, Retrieved 15 December The New York Times.
Retrieved February 7, Retrieved March 22, But the new restrictions mean anybody who has travelled to Iran, Iraq, Syria and Sudan since will have to apply for a visa. Penang bans foreign cooks at hawker stalls". Archived from the original on Christian views in the modern day are diverse and cover the gamut of views from intense belief and opposition especially from Christian fundamentalists to non-belief, and in some churches even approval.
From the midth century, witchcraft — sometimes called contemporary witchcraft to clearly distinguish it from older beliefs — became the name of a branch of modern paganism. It is most notably practiced in the Wiccan and modern witchcraft traditions, and no longer practices in secrecy. The Western mainstream Christian view is far from the only societal perspective about witchcraft.
Many cultures worldwide continue to have widespread practices and cultural beliefs that are loosely translated into English as "witchcraft", although the English translation masks a very great diversity in their forms, magical beliefs, practices, and place in their societies. During the Age of Colonialism , many cultures across the globe were exposed to the modern Western world via colonialism , usually accompanied and often preceded by intensive Christian missionary activity see " Christianization ".
Beliefs related to witchcraft and magic in these cultures were at times influenced by the prevailing Western concepts. Witch hunts, scapegoating, and killing or shunning of suspected witches still occurs in the modern era,  with killings both of victims for their supposedly magical body parts , and of suspected witchcraft practitioners.
Suspicion of modern medicine due to beliefs about illness being due to witchcraft also continues in many countries to this day, with tragic healthcare consequences. Other severe medical conditions whose treatment is hampered in this way include tuberculosis , leprosy , epilepsy and the common severe bacterial Buruli ulcer. The word "witch" is of uncertain origin. There are numerous etymologies that it could be derived from.
Evans-Pritchard , who cautioned that it might not correspond with normal English usage. Historians of European witchcraft have found the anthropological definition difficult to apply to European and British witchcraft, where witches could equally use or be accused of using physical techniques, as well as some who really had attempted to cause harm by thought alone.
Historically the witchcraft label has been applied to practices people believe influence the mind, body, or property of others against their will—or practices that the person doing the labeling believes undermine social or religious order.
Some modern commentators [ who? The concept of a magic-worker influencing another person's body or property against their will was clearly present in many cultures, as traditions in both folk magic and religious magic have the purpose of countering malicious magic or identifying malicious magic users. Many examples appear in early texts, such as those from ancient Egypt and Babylonia. Malicious magic users can become a credible cause for disease, sickness in animals, bad luck, sudden death, impotence and other such misfortunes.
Witchcraft of a more benign and socially acceptable sort may then be employed to turn the malevolence aside, or identify the supposed evil-doer so that punishment may be carried out. The folk magic used to identify or protect against malicious magic users is often indistinguishable from that used by the witches themselves.
Not only were physicians and surgeons the principal professional arbiters for determining natural versus preternatural signs and symptoms of disease, they occupied key legislative, judicial, and ministerial roles relating to witchcraft proceedings. Forty six male physicians, surgeons, and apothecaries are named in court transcripts or other contemporary source materials relating to New England witchcraft.
These practitioners served on coroners' inquests, performed autopsies, took testimony, issued writs, wrote letters, or committed people to prison, in addition to diagnosing and treating patients. Some practitioners are simply mentioned in passing. There has also existed in popular belief the concept of white witches and white witchcraft, which is strictly benevolent. Many neopagan witches strongly identify with this concept, and profess ethical codes that prevent them from performing magic on a person without their request.
Probably the most widely known characteristic of a witch was the ability to cast a spell , "spell" being the word used to signify the means employed to carry out a magical action. A spell could consist of a set of words, a formula or verse, or a ritual action, or any combination of these. The biblical Witch of Endor performed it 1 Sam. Witches still go to cross-roads and to heathen burials with their delusive magic and call to the devil; and he comes to them in the likeness of the man that is buried there, as if he arise from death.
In Christianity and Islam , sorcery came to be associated with heresy and apostasy and to be viewed as evil. The key century was the fifteenth, which saw a dramatic rise in awareness and terror of witchcraft, culminating in the publication of the Malleus Maleficarum but prepared by such fanatical popular preachers as Bernardino of Siena. In total, tens or hundreds of thousands of people were executed, and others were imprisoned, tortured, banished, and had lands and possessions confiscated.
The majority of those accused were women, though in some regions the majority were men. It was used by both Catholics and Protestants  for several hundred years, outlining how to identify a witch, what makes a woman more likely than a man to be a witch, how to put a witch on trial, and how to punish a witch. The book defines a witch as evil and typically female.
The book became the handbook for secular courts throughout Renaissance Europe, but was not used by the Inquisition, which even cautioned against relying on the work,  and was later officially condemned by the Catholic Church in In the modern Western world, witchcraft accusations have often accompanied the satanic ritual abuse moral panic. Such accusations are a counterpart to blood libel of various kinds, which may be found throughout history across the globe.
Throughout the early modern period , the English term "witch" was not exclusively negative in meaning, and could also indicate cunning folk. As Alan McFarlane noted, "There were a number of interchangeable terms for these practitioners, 'white', 'good', or 'unbinding' witches, blessers, wizards, sorcerers, however 'cunning-man' and 'wise-man' were the most frequent.
Many English "witches" convicted of consorting with demons seem to have been cunning folk whose fairy familiars had been demonised;  many French devins-guerisseurs "diviner-healers" were accused of witchcraft,  and over one half the accused witches in Hungary seem to have been healers. Some of the healers and diviners historically accused of witchcraft have considered themselves mediators between the mundane and spiritual worlds, roughly equivalent to shamans.
Repeated themes include participation in processions of the dead or large feasts, often presided over by a horned male deity or a female divinity who teaches magic and gives prophecies; and participation in battles against evil spirits, "vampires", or "witches" to win fertility and prosperity for the community. She identifies three varieties of witch in popular belief: Such accusations follow the breaking of some social norm, such as the failure to return a borrowed item, and any person part of the normal social exchange could potentially fall under suspicion.
Claims of "sorcerer" witches and "supernatural" witches could arise out of social tensions, but not exclusively; the supernatural witch in particular often had nothing to do with communal conflict, but expressed tensions between the human and supernatural worlds; and in Eastern and Southeastern Europe such supernatural witches became an ideology explaining calamities that befell entire communities.
Belief in witchcraft continues to be present today in some societies and accusations of witchcraft are the trigger of serious forms of violence, including murder. Accusations of witchcraft are sometimes linked to personal disputes, jealousy, and conflicts between neighbors or family over land or inheritance. Witchcraft related violence is often discussed as a serious issue in the broader context of violence against women.
For instance, in Saudi Arabia practicing 'witchcraft and sorcery' is a crime punishable by death and the country has executed people for this crime in , and Children in some regions of the world, such as parts of Africa, are also vulnerable to violence related to witchcraft accusations. Modern practices identified by their practitioners as "witchcraft" have grown dramatically since the early 20th century.
Generally portrayed as revivals of pre-Christian European ritual and spirituality , they are understood to involve varying degrees of magic , shamanism , folk medicine , spiritual healing , calling on elementals and spirits , veneration of ancient deities and archetypes , and attunement with the forces of nature.
They operated as initiatory secret societies. Other individual practitioners and writers such as Paul Huson  also claimed inheritance to surviving traditions of witchcraft.
During the 20th century, interest in witchcraft in English-speaking and European countries began to increase, inspired particularly by Margaret Murray 's theory of a pan-European witch-cult originally published in , since discredited by further careful historical research. The truth of Gardner's claim is now disputed too, with different historians offering evidence for   or against    the religion's existence prior to Gardner.
The Wicca that Gardner initially taught was a witchcraft religion having a lot in common with Margaret Murray's hypothetically posited cult of the s. Wicca is now practised as a religion of an initiatory secret society nature with positive ethical principles, organised into autonomous covens and led by a High Priesthood.
There is also a large "Eclectic Wiccan" movement of individuals and groups who share key Wiccan beliefs but have no initiatory connection or affiliation with traditional Wicca. Wiccan writings and ritual show borrowings from a number of sources including 19th and 20th-century ceremonial magic , the medieval grimoire known as the Key of Solomon , Aleister Crowley 's Ordo Templi Orientis and pre-Christian religions.
Since Gardner's death in , the Wicca that he claimed he was initiated into has attracted many initiates, becoming the largest of the various witchcraft traditions in the Western world, and has influenced other Neopagan and occult movements. Wiccan literature has been described as aiding the empowerment of young women through its lively portrayal of female protagonists. Part of the recent growth in Neo-Pagan religions has been attributed to the strong media presence of fictional works such as the Buffy the Vampire Slayer and Harry Potter series with their depictions of witchcraft.
Wiccan beliefs are currently often found to be compatible with liberal ideals such as the Green movement , and particularly with feminism by providing young women with means for empowerment and for control of their own lives.
The Reclaiming Witches of San Francisco suggests that Wiccan religion represents the second wave of feminism that has also been redefined as a religious movement. Stregheria is an Italian witchcraft religion popularised in the s by Raven Grimassi , who claims that it evolved within the ancient Etruscan religion of Italian peasants who worked under the Catholic upper classes.
Leland's witches do not see Lucifer as the evil Satan that Christians see, but a benevolent god of the Sun and Moon. The ritual format of contemporary Stregheria is roughly similar to that of other Neopagan witchcraft religions such as Wicca.
The pentagram is the most common symbol of religious identity. Most followers celebrate a series of eight festivals equivalent to the Wiccan Wheel of the Year , though others follow the ancient Roman festivals.
An emphasis is placed on ancestor worship. Traditional witchcraft is a term used to refer to a variety of contemporary forms of witchcraft. Pagan studies scholar Ethan Doyle White described it as "a broad movement of aligned magico-religious groups who reject any relation to Gardnerianism and the wider Wiccan movement, claiming older, more "traditional" roots.
Although typically united by a shared aesthetic rooted in European folklore, the Traditional Craft contains within its ranks a rich and varied array of occult groups, from those who follow a contemporary Pagan path that is suspiciously similar to Wicca to those who adhere to Luciferianism ". Schulke, the current Magister of the Cultus Sabbati, when he proclaimed that traditional witchcraft "refers to a coterie of initiatory lineages of ritual magic, spellcraft and devotional mysticism".
Satanism is a broad term referring to diverse beliefs that share a symbolic association with, or admiration for, Satan , who is seen as a liberating figure. While it is heir to the same historical period and pre-Enlightenment beliefs that gave rise to modern witchcraft, it is generally seen as completely separate from modern witchcraft and Wicca, and has little or no connection to them.
Modern witchcraft considers Satanism to be the "dark side of Christianity" rather than a branch of Wicca: Christianity can be characterized as having the diametrically opposite views to these. The two major trends are theistic Satanism and atheistic Satanism ; the former venerates Satan as a supernatural patriarchal deity , while the latter views Satan as merely a symbolic embodiment of certain human traits.
Organized groups began to emerge in the mid 20th century, including the Ophite Cultus Satanas  and The Church of Satan Sloane also corresponded with his contemporary Gerald Gardner , founder of the Wicca religion, and implied that his views of Satan and the horned god were not necessarily in conflict with Gardner's approach.
However, he did believe that, while "gnosis" referred to knowledge, and " Wicca " referred to wisdom, modern witches had fallen away from the true knowledge, and instead had begun worshipping a fertility god , a reflection of the creator god.
He wrote that "the largest existing body of witches who are true Satanists would be the Yezedees ". Sloane highly recommended the book The Gnostic Religion , and sections of it were sometimes read at ceremonies. For example, they were allowed in the British Royal Navy in ,    and an appeal was considered in for religious status as a right of prisoners by the Supreme Court of the United States.
Luciferianism , on the other hand, is a belief system  and does not revere the devil figure or most characteristics typically affixed to Satan. Rather, Lucifer in this context is seen as one of many morning stars, a symbol of enlightenment,  independence and human progression.
Madeline Montalban was an English witch who adhered to a specific form of luciferianism which revolved around the veneration of Lucifer, or Lumiel, whom she considered to be a benevolent angelic being who had aided humanity's development. Within her Order, she emphasised that her followers discover their own personal relationship with the angelic beings, including Lumiel.
The belief in sorcery and its practice seem to have been widespread in the Ancient Near East and Nile Valley. It played a conspicuous role in the cultures of ancient Egypt and in Babylonia. A section from the Code of Hammurabi about B. If a man has put a spell upon another man and it is not justified, he upon whom the spell is laid shall go to the holy river; into the holy river shall he plunge. If the holy river overcome him and he is drowned, the man who put the spell upon him shall take possession of his house.
If the holy river declares him innocent and he remains unharmed the man who laid the spell shall be put to death. He that plunged into the river shall take possession of the house of him who laid the spell upon him. In the Holy Scripture references to sorcery are frequent, and the strong condemnations of such practices found there do not seem to be based so much upon the supposition of fraud as upon the abomination of the magic in itself.
Verses such as Deuteronomy The Bible provides some evidence that these commandments against sorcery were enforced under the Hebrew kings:. And Saul disguised himself, and put on other raiment, and he went, and two men with him, and they came to the woman by night: And the woman said unto him, Behold, thou knowest what Saul hath done, how he hath cut off those that have familiar spirits, and the wizards, out of the land: The New Testament condemns the practice as an abomination, just as the Old Testament had Galatians 5: Although Maimonides vigorously denied the efficacy of all methods of witchcraft, and claimed that the Biblical prohibitions regarding it were precisely to wean the Israelites from practices related to idolatry.
It is acknowledged that while magic exists, it is forbidden to practice it on the basis that it usually involves the worship of other gods. Rabbis of the Talmud also condemned magic when it produced something other than illusion, giving the example of two men who use magic to pick cucumbers Sanhedrin 67a. The one who creates the illusion of picking cucumbers should not be condemned, only the one who actually picks the cucumbers through magic.
However, some of the rabbis practiced "magic" themselves or taught the subject. For instance, Rabbah created a person and sent him to Rav Zeira , and Hanina and Hoshaiah studied every Friday together and created a small calf to eat on Shabbat Sanhedrin 67b.
In these cases, the "magic" was seen more as divine miracles i. Judaism does make it clear that Jews shall not try to learn about the ways of witches Book of Deuteronomy Judaism's most famous reference to a medium is undoubtedly the Witch of Endor whom Saul consults, as recounted in 1 Samuel Divination, and magic in Islam, encompass a wide range of practices, including black magic , warding off the evil eye , the production of amulets and other magical equipment, evocation , casting lots , and astrology.
Muslims do commonly believe in magic sihr and explicitly forbid its practice. Sihr translates from Arabic as sorcery or black magic. The best known reference to magic in Islam is surah al-Falaq of the Qur'an , which is known as a prayer to God to ward off black magic. I seek refuge with the Lord of the Dawn From the mischief of created things; From the mischief of Darkness as it overspreads; From the mischief of those who practise secret arts; And from the mischief of the envious one as he practises envy.
And they follow that which the devils falsely related against the kingdom of Solomon. Solomon disbelieved not; but the devils disbelieved, teaching mankind sorcery and that which was revealed to the two angels in Babel, Harut and Marut And surely they do know that he who trafficketh therein will have no happy portion in the Hereafter; and surely evil is the price for which they sell their souls, if they but knew.
Islam distinguishes between God-given gifts, which can heal sickness, and possession , and sorcery. Good supernatural powers are therefore a special gift from God , whereas sorcery or black magic is achieved through help of Jinn and demons. Ibn al-Nadim hold, Exorcists gain their power by their obedience to God, while sorcerers please the demons by acts of disobidience and sacrifices and they in return do him a favor. Some Muslim practitioners believe that they may seek the help of the jinn in magic.
It is a common belief that jinn can possess a human, thus requiring Exorcism. Still, the practice of seeking help to the Jinn is prohibited and can lead to possession. To cast off the jinn or devils from the body of the possessed, the "ruqya," which is from the Prophet's sunnah is used. The ruqya contains verses of the Qur'an as well as prayers specifically targeted against demons. The knowledge of which verses of the Qur'an to use in what way is what is considered "magic knowledge. A hadith recorded in Sahih al-Bukhari narrates that one who has eaten seven Ajwa dates in the morning will not be adversely affected by magic in the course of that day.
Students of the history of religion have linked several magical practises in Islam with pre-Islamic Turkish and East African customs. In Southern African traditions, there are three classifications of somebody who uses magic.
The tagati is usually improperly translated into English as "witch", and is a spiteful person who operates in secret to harm others. The sangoma is a diviner, somewhere on a par with a fortune teller , and is employed in detecting illness, predicting a person's future or advising them on which path to take , or identifying the guilty party in a crime.
She also practices some degree of medicine. The inyanga is often translated as "witch doctor" though many Southern Africans resent this implication, as it perpetuates the mistaken belief that a "witch doctor" is in some sense a practitioner of malicious magic. The inyanga ' s job is to heal illness and injury and provide customers with magical items for everyday use. Of these three categories the tagati is almost exclusively female, the sangoma is usually female, and the inyanga is almost exclusively male.
Much of what witchcraft represents in Africa has been susceptible to misunderstandings and confusion, thanks in no small part to a tendency among western scholars since the time of the now largely discredited Margaret Murray to approach the subject through a comparative lens vis-a-vis European witchcraft. Complimentary remarks about witchcraft by a native Congolese initiate: They could also gather the power of animals into their hands If we could make use of these kinds of witchcraft, our country would rapidly progress in knowledge of every kind.
In eastern Cameroon, the term used for witchcraft among the Maka is djambe  and refers to a force inside a person; its powers may make the proprietor more vulnerable. It encompasses the occult, the transformative, killing and healing. In some Central African areas, malicious magic users are believed by locals to be the source of terminal illness such as AIDS and cancer. In such cases, various methods are used to rid the person from the bewitching spirit, occasionally physical and psychological abuse.
Children may be accused of being witches, for example a young niece may be blamed for the illness of a relative. Most of these cases of abuse go unreported since the members of the society that witness such abuse are too afraid of being accused of being accomplices.
It is also believed that witchcraft can be transmitted to children by feeding. Parents discourage their children from interacting with people believed to be witches. Every year, hundreds of people in the Central African Republic are convicted of witchcraft. Christian militias in the Central African Republic have also kidnapped, burnt and buried alive women accused of being 'witches' in public ceremonies.
As of [update] , between 25, and 50, children in Kinshasa , Democratic Republic of the Congo , had been accused of witchcraft and thrown out of their homes. Other pastors and Christian activists strongly oppose such accusations and try to rescue children from their unscrupulous colleagues. In April , in Kinshasa, the police arrested 14 suspected victims of penis snatching and sorcerers accused of using black magic or witchcraft to steal make disappear or shrink men's penises to extort cash for cure, amid a wave of panic.
According to one study, the belief in magical warfare technologies such as "bulletproofing" in the Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo serves a group-level function, as it increases group efficiency in warfare, even if it is suboptimal at the individual level. In Ghana , women are often accused of witchcraft and attacked by neighbours. Arrests were made in an effort to avoid bloodshed seen in Ghana a decade ago, when 12 alleged penis snatchers were beaten to death by mobs.
For example, the belief that a sorcerer has "stolen" a man's penis functions as an anxiety-reduction mechanism for men suffering from impotence while simultaneously providing an explanation that is consistent with African cultural beliefs rather than appealing to Western scientific notions that are tainted by the history of colonialism at least for many Africans.
It was reported on May 21, that in Kenya , a mob had burnt to death at least 11 people accused of witchcraft. In Malawi it is also common practice to accuse children of witchcraft and many children have been abandoned, abused and even killed as a result. As in other African countries both African traditional healers and their Christian counterparts are trying to make a living out of exorcising children and are actively involved in pointing out children as witches.
According to William Kamkwamba , witches and wizards are afraid of money, which they consider a rival evil. Any contact with cash will snap their spell and leave the wizard naked and confused. So placing cash, such as kwacha around a room or bed mat will protect the resident from their malevolent spells.
In Nigeria , several Pentecostal pastors have mixed their evangelical brand of Christianity with African beliefs in witchcraft to benefit from the lucrative witch finding and exorcism business—which in the past was the exclusive domain of the so-called witch doctor or traditional healers. These pastors have been involved in the torturing and even killing of children accused of witchcraft.
Churches are very numerous in Nigeria, and competition for congregations is hard. Some pastors attempt to establish a reputation for spiritual power by "detecting" child witches, usually following a death or loss of a job within a family, or an accusation of financial fraud against the pastor.
In the course of "exorcisms", accused children may be starved, beaten, mutilated, set on fire, forced to consume acid or cement, or buried alive. While some church leaders and Christian activists have spoken out strongly against these abuses, many Nigerian churches are involved in the abuse, although church administrations deny knowledge of it.
Among the Mende of Sierra Leone , trial and conviction for witchcraft has a beneficial effect for those convicted. Six months later all of the people Instead of such old and widowed people being left helpless or as in Western society institutionalized in old people's homes, these were reintegrated into society and left secure in their old age Old people are 'suitable' candidates for this kind of accusation in the sense that they are isolated and vulnerable, and they are 'suitable' candidates for 'social security' for precisely the same reasons.
In Kuranko language , the term for witchcraft is suwa'ye  referring to "extraordinary powers". In Tanzania in , President Kikwete publicly condemned witchdoctors for killing albinos for their body parts, which are thought to bring good luck.
Sorcery usually involves reference to the almasola or homber chiki , a devil-like entity. Hoek of the Parnassia Psychiatric Institute.
In , Springfield, Massachusetts , experienced America's first accusations of witchcraft when husband and wife Hugh and Mary Parsons accused each other of witchcraft. At America's first witch trial , Hugh was found innocent, while Mary was acquitted of witchcraft but sentenced to be hanged for the death of her child.
She died in prison. Thirteen women and two men were executed in a witch-hunt that lasted throughout New England from — The Salem witch trials followed in — These witch trials were the most famous in British North America and took place in the coastal settlements near Salem, Massachusetts. Over people were arrested and imprisoned, with even more accused who were not formally pursued by the authorities.
The two courts convicted 29 people of the capital felony of witchcraft. Nineteen of the accused, 14 women and 5 men, were hanged. One man who refused to enter a plea was crushed to death under heavy stones in an attempt to force him to do so.
At least five more of the accused died in prison. Despite being generally known as the "Salem" witch trials, the preliminary hearings in were conducted in a variety of towns across the province: The four sessions of the Superior Court of Judicature in , held in Salem Town, but also in Ipswich, Boston, and Charlestown, produced only 3 convictions in the 31 witchcraft trials it conducted. Likewise, alleged witchcraft was not isolated to New England. Accusations of witchcraft and wizardry led to the prosecution of a man in Tennessee as recently as While spiritual leaders perform " sings " for healing, protection and other beneficial purposes, all practices referred to as "witchcraft" are intended to hurt and curse.
Witches are associated with harm to the community and transgression of societal standards, especially those relating to family and the dead. The yee naaldlooshii is the type of witch known in English as a "skin-walker". They are believed to take the forms of animals in order to travel in secret and do harm to the innocent.
Corpse powder or corpse poison Navajo: The powder is used by witches to curse their victims. Sometimes, however, the victims simply wastes away , as from a normal disease.
Traditional Navajos usually hesitate to discuss things like witches and witchcraft with non-Navajos. Witchcraft was also an important part of the social and cultural history of late-Colonial Mexico, during the Mexican Inquisition. Spanish Inquisitors viewed witchcraft as a problem that could be cured simply through confession. Yet, as anthropologist Ruth Behar writes, witchcraft, not only in Mexico but in Latin America in general, was a "conjecture of sexuality, witchcraft, and religion, in which Spanish, indigenous, and African cultures converged.
In modern history, notoriety has been awarded to a place called Catemaco , in the state of Veracruz, which has a history of witchcraft, and where the practice of witchcraft by contemporary brujos and brujas thrives. The presence of the witch is a constant in the ethnographic history of colonial Brazil , especially during the several denunciations and confessions given to the Holy Office of Bahia — , Pernambuco and Paraiba — Belief in the supernatural is strong in all parts of India , and lynchings for witchcraft are reported in the press from time to time.
Apart from other types of Violence against women in Nepal , the malpractice of abusing women in the name of witchcraft is also really prominent. According to the statistics in , there was a total of 69 reported cases of abuse to women due accusation of performing witchcraft in the year The perpetrators of this malpractice are mostly neighbors, so-called witch doctors and family members.
According to the statistics by INSEC , the age group of women who fall victims to the witchcraft violence is 20— In Japanese folklore, the most common types of witch can be separated into two categories: The fox witch is, by far, the most commonly seen witch figure in Japan.
Differing regional beliefs set those who use foxes into two separate types: The first of these, the kitsune-mochi , is a solitary figure who gains his fox familiar by bribing it with its favourite foods. The kitsune-mochi then strikes up a deal with the fox, typically promising food and daily care in return for the fox's magical services.
The fox of Japanese folklore is a powerful trickster in and of itself, imbued with powers of shape changing, possession, and illusion. These creatures can be either nefarious; disguising themselves as women in order to trap men, or they can be benign forces as in the story of "The Grateful foxes".
A fox under the employ of a human can provide many services. The fox can turn invisible and find secrets its master desires. It can apply its many powers of illusion to trick and deceive its master's enemies. The most feared power of the kitsune-mochi is the ability to command his fox to possess other humans. This process of possession is called Kitsunetsuki. By far, the most commonly reported cases of fox witchcraft in modern Japan are enacted by tsukimono-suji families, or "hereditary witches".
These foxes serve the family and are passed down through the generations, typically through the female line. Tsukimono-suji foxes are able to supply much in the way of the same mystical aid that the foxes under the employ of a kitsune-mochi can provide its more solitary master with. In addition to these powers, if the foxes are kept happy and well taken care of, they bring great fortune and prosperity to the Tsukimono-suji house.
However, the aid in which these foxes give is often overshadowed by the social and mystical implications of being a member of such a family. In many villages, the status of local families as tsukimono-suji is often common, everyday knowledge.
Such families are respected and feared, but are also openly shunned. Due to its hereditary nature, the status of being Tsukimono-suji is considered contagious. Because of this, it is often impossible for members of such a family to sell land or other properties, due to fear that the possession of such items will cause foxes to inundate one's own home.
In addition to this, because the foxes are believed to be passed down through the female line, it is often nearly impossible for women of such families to find a husband whose family will agree to have him married to a tsukimono-suji family.
In such a union the woman's status as a Tsukimono-suji would transfer to any man who married her. Witchcraft in the Philippines is often classified as malevolent, with practitioners of black magic called Mangkukulam in Tagalog and Mambabarang in Cebuano ; there are also practitioners of benevolent, white magic, in addition to some who practise both.
Mambabarang in particular are noted for their ability to command insects and other invertebrates to accomplish a task, such as delivering a curse to a target. Practitioners of traditional herbal-based medicine and divination called albularyo are not considered witches.
They are perceived to be either quack doctors or a quasi-magical option when western medicine fails to identify or cure an ailment that is thus suspected to be of supernatural, often malevolent, origin. Feng shui , an influence of Filipino Chinese culture, is also not classified as witchcraft as it is considered a separate realm of belief altogether. Saudi Arabia continues to use the death penalty for sorcery and witchcraft. Saudi authorities also pronounced the death penalty on a Lebanese television presenter, Ali Hussain Sibat , while he was performing the hajj Islamic pilgrimage in the country.
In April , a Saudi woman Amina Bint Abdulhalim Nassar was arrested and later sentenced to death for practicing witchcraft and sorcery. In December , she was beheaded. In June , Yahoo reported: An expedition sent to what is now the Xinjiang region of western China by the PBS documentary series Nova found a fully clothed female Tocharian mummy wearing a black conical hat of the type now associated with witches in Europe in the storage area of a small local museum, indicative of an Indo-European priestess.
Witchcraft in Europe between — was believed to be a combination of sorcery and heresy. While sorcery attempts to produce negative supernatural effects through formulas and rituals, heresy is the Christian contribution to witchcraft in which an individual makes a pact with the Devil.
In addition, heresy denies witches the recognition of important Christian values such as baptism, salvation, Christ and sacraments. In Early Modern European tradition, witches were stereotypically, though not exclusively, women. The peak years of witch-hunts in southwest Germany were from to It was commonly believed that individuals with power and prestige were involved in acts of witchcraft and even cannibalism.
The familiar witch of folklore and popular superstition is a combination of numerous influences. The characterization of the witch as an evil magic user developed over time. Early converts to Christianity looked to Christian clergy to work magic more effectively than the old methods under Roman paganism, and Christianity provided a methodology involving saints and relics, similar to the gods and amulets of the Pagan world.
As Christianity became the dominant religion in Europe, its concern with magic lessened. The Protestant Christian explanation for witchcraft, such as those typified in the confessions of the Pendle witches , commonly involves a diabolical pact or at least an appeal to the intervention of the spirits of evil. The witches or wizards engaged in such practices were alleged to reject Jesus and the sacraments ; observe " the witches' sabbath " performing infernal rites that often parodied the Mass or other sacraments of the Church ; pay Divine honour to the Prince of Darkness ; and, in return, receive from him preternatural powers.
It was a folkloric belief that a Devil's Mark, like the brand on cattle, was placed upon a witch's skin by the devil to signify that this pact had been made. Witches disrupted the societal institutions, and more specifically, marriage. It was believed that a witch often joined a pact with the devil to gain powers to deal with infertility, immense fear for her children's well-being, or revenge against a lover.
They were also depicted as lustful and perverted, and it was thought that they copulated with the devil at the Sabbath. The Church and European society were not always so zealous in hunting witches or blaming them for misfortunes. Saint Boniface declared in the 8th century that belief in the existence of witches was un-Christian. The emperor Charlemagne decreed that the burning of supposed witches was a pagan custom that would be punished by the death penalty.
In the Bishop of Lyon and others repudiated the belief that witches could make bad weather, fly in the night, and change their shape. This denial was accepted into Canon law. Other rulers such as King Coloman of Hungary declared that witch-hunts should cease because witches more specifically, strigas do not exist. The Church did not invent the idea of witchcraft as a potentially harmful force whose practitioners should be put to death.
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