DOGGING LOCATIONS CASUAL DATING NEW SOUTH WALES
In France, in England, and in Russia alike, ministers have publicly declared that the women have been splendid. Asquith, referring in the House of Commons to what they had already accomplished, added that he believed they could do even more in the future by releasing thousands and tens of thousands of men, and undertaking their jobs.
This the Prime Minister thought would mean gigantic, and at the same time rapid strides towards the solution of one of our most pressing problems. The Press in all countries has commented with pride on the way they have organized themselves for war service. It is one of the virtues of war that it puts the light, which in peace time is hid under a bushel, in such prominence that all can see it.
Few seem to realize that women have only transferred their usual activities to new channels; the latent energy was there, but is now developed and extended. Yet I would not deny that there is a new spirit abroad.
Take the work done by women in nursing the wounded, which naturally occupies a large space in these pages. The traditional task of tending the wounded has been undertaken by thousands, and that is not all. The Board of Trade has recently made arrangements for women to serve under the War Office in certain departments of military hospitals, in order that men may be released for other work. And women are now employed as cooks, store-keepers, and dispensers, and in various clerical work.
Apart from this development, another new epoch for women is undoubtedly at hand; women doctors are filling the gaps in the medical profession, and are certainly doing their work admirably.
We are told the shortage will increase, and if the war continues still longer there will be an even greater need for women doctors. In the sphere of science women have also done their part. In France Madame Curie, of radium fame, has put herself at the disposal of the French military authorities. Motoring from hospital to hospital, she organized the treatment her discovery has made possible.
An Englishwoman, Miss Mary Davies, voluntarily inoculated herself with the bacillus of gas-gangrene, in order that doctors might be able to test fairly a new antidote. She undertook her heroic action with a full knowledge of the risk, as for some years she had been a bacteriologist at the Pasteur Institute.
It is nothing new for women to show courage, devotion, and self-sacrifice, but this heroine of science is essentially a modern product. The women who are working in the active zone as nurses, or in the many hospitals at home, are to be envied, for they have the exhilarating feeling that they are on active service; there is no doubt that where we can only imagine, the work is harder than when we have the actuality before our eyes. It is essential to take into account that France and Russia have conscription, which simplifies the issue, helping women to see their duty in war time—and to do it.
Might not this be another plea for conscription--that word so many fight shy of, and yet which means nothing worse than summoning together. That the labour problem is also simplified by national service is fairly obvious. It stands to reason that whatever the feelings of men in. English women in munitions factory.
Women and men working in storage shed for large shells. In most of the munitions centers the Young Womens' Christian Association has established cafeterias and shampoo parlors. Click on photo for a larger image. One of the striking effects of war conditions has been the number of women employed in industrial occupations.
Women in France and in Germany were making shells during the first month of the war, and were prepared to do so. Whereas in England women have only lately been employed, notwithstanding the great demand for female labour in the munitions factories.
English women certainly do not suffer by comparison with women of other nationalities in respect of physical courage. In France, in Flanders, in Serbia, there have been innumerable instances of bravery and endurance under fire in the field hospitals, and in the often-shelled hospitals at the base; and I have no doubt that if English nurses were allowed in the firing line as they are in Russia, we should hear of deeds of heroism equal to that glorious one recorded of the Russian nurse Mareya Ivanovna.
She, it will be remembered, when all the officers of a battalion were killed and the men showed signs of being demoralized, rallied them, and leading a charge, fell, mortally wounded at the moment of victory, having earned the Cross of St.
George, and undying glory. The chapter in this book dealing with German and Austrian women is necessarily short, but it indicates well enough that they are supporting the men in the field with a fervour and self-sacrifice which we ought to admire, since we can hardly take up the attitude that what is a virtue in us is a vice in the enemy.
It is a source of pride to me personally that the women of America have proved, as President [Ulysses S. It is perhaps premature to speculate on the effect the war will have on the position of women in the future. There can be no doubt that they have learned much through the services they have rendered—through their mistakes and failures as well as through their successful achievements, and that they will learn much more before Peace is restored.
Although this book does not profess to chronicle in its entirety of the work done by women in war time, it is an honest attempt to grapple with some of its issues, and therefore I hope the Public will welcome it. At that time men were going off to the front, leaving many trades short-handed. In another direction, numbers of women who had devoted their skill to the claims of dress and fashion, or had helped to entertain us or provide us with luxuries, were flung down workless and helpless.
In truth, when the harsh blast of the war bugle for recruits sounded through the land, it seemed as if working women everywhere were to be thrown out of employment to face misery, want, hardship, and despair. Briefly, in August, , the whole industrial machinery of Great Britain may be said to have been cruelly jarred and shaken, and, to those who looked with seeing eyes, a great deal trembled in the balance. There was need for quick action. Naturally many women came forward and offered to nurse the wounded, or hurried away to France to offer their services.
But it was characteristic of the Queen that she thought at once of the women workers in the shadow and the silence. Her warm sympathy prompted her to help them on the instant; the ordinary workaday world, she saw, must be quickly and skillfully readjusted. Women must be taught new trades. How could money be spent better than in "paying them to learn"? Miracles must not be asked or expected. Time must be given, and so must thought and money, if the women, who now shivered at the black darkness of a future that showed no opportunity for them, were to be put in the way of earning a living.
Arthur Pearson the Honorary Treasurer, while Miss Mary Macarthur, with her intimate knowledge of the always difficult path of the industrial woman worker, came forward to advise and direct the Central Committee. At 88, Portland Place, the house lent by Lord Blyth to Her Majesty for the Work for Women Fund Head-quarters there were gathered together numbers of capable women busy all day long in the work of organizing. To their untiring efforts and their keen, human interest the whole nation owes earnest thanks for the splendid work that was and is being done there with vigilance, and promptness.
The aims of the Fund are so numerous that it is impossible to describe them all here in detail. One thing is certain. No woman is turned away unheard, unhelped or unfed. To the seamstress and milliner, sewing is handed to be done at Trade Union rates. Typists, actresses, tea-shop girls, and any other worker who has lost her occupation through the war, can apply and be sure of help. The directors asked her in which direction her fancies lay, and she chose to be taught the mysteries of toy-making with excellent results.
Other women are anxious to learn the domesticated arts, cooking, washing, and laundering; while some hanker after open-air employment, and find a new joy in life out in the country, in working on the land, in some cases fruit-farming, in others devoting their time to nursery-garden work. But wherever the occupation is new, the women and girls are "paid to learn.
It reads like a fairy tale to the woman at close grips with real poverty, but it is sound common-sense and national economy. It means that the mothers of the next generation can become capable, dependable women—women who can train their families worthily and well, while those on the Fund who do not marry, will find the benefit of this training as workers in the future.
Married or single, these trained women must prove a strength to their country long after the War is finished. Thus Australia invited Queen Mary to send over five hundred and fifty out-of-work girls. These situations proved splendid chances for enterprising girls who were not afraid of hard work. No matter if a girl be stupid, helpless even, for all the applicants have not had equal educational advantages—there is always kindly patience ready, always a friendly desire to explain and to aid.
The Work for Women Fund exhibits clearly the genius of the educated woman, who is quick to seize upon possible opportunities and to point the way to others of her sex less fortunately placed. She interested herself at once in the suggested Princess Mary Gift Book, and gave more personal thought to its compilation than many of the reading public realize.
It was said that, unlike the pattern girl of the improving story book, she never was "fond of her needle," but now she is always ready and eager to work for the men in the trenches, for their children at home, and for the Belgian refugees. One of the things all women love in the Queen is that she is not content to organize, direct, and give "money from a well-filled store," but offers her personal service.
And in this Princess Mary resembles the Queen. Every year Queen Mary knits woolen vests and other garments for the Needlework Guild, in addition to the work she pays to have done. And now, in these days of war, Her Majesty has a piece of work--in every one of the royal apartments, so that she may take up her work anywhere if she finds herself with an odd minute of leisure. Princess Mary is said to have made "yards and yards of mufflers" since August It was entirely her own idea to send a Christmas present to every soldier and sailor fighting for our Empire.
The brass box with her portrait embossed upon the lid, the wording of the Christmas card, the choice of the gifts--cigarettes, matches, tobacco or pipe--every little detail she thought out. In the second month of Princess Mary had another very happy thought. Some of our broken warriors who could never hope to fight again, had been sent home to England in exchange for a like number of disabled Germans.
The Princess remembered that these men would have received no gift from her at Christmas time, so she went herself to visit them in the Queen Alexandra Military Hospital, and gave them presents from her Christmas Fund.
Queen Alexandra has also worked very hard. In our chapter about War-Nursing her name will occur again and again amongst those who with the Imperial Service Sisters, the Naval Nurses, and the Red Cross Legions, have ever been eager to alleviate the lot of the wounded. Writing in a preface to a record of Red Cross work, the Queen Mother thanks every individual nurse, "I and the whole nation," she says, "owe them an undying and unfailing debt of gratitude.
Not long ago she stopped her motor so that she, with Princess Victoria, might watch a game of football which some khaki-clad Tommies were enjoying not far from the banks of the Serpentine. The same evening a subscription was sent by her to the fund for giving footballs to the boys in training. No one had recognized the two royal ladies, for the soldiers were intent upon their game. Princess Victoria has been busy in war-time activities on her own account, cutting out garments and paying out-of-work dressmakers to make them up.
With Queen Alexandra the Princess has interested herself in many other valuable war projects. The idea of this Fund is to sort out the many and varied gifts sent in and to make up useful all-round parcels that shall meet every need of the recipient. The grateful letters they receive make them feel that this sorting-out process is not wasted effort.
This is how the grateful warrior sang his thanks:. Queen Alexandra is specially interested in the efforts that are being made on behalf of our blinded soldiers. The scheme originated with Mr. Princess Christian is another untiring war worker. In the South Africa war Princess did much hospital work, sending out an ambulance train; and since the outbreak of this war she has again been doing all in her power to help the sick and the wounded at the battle-front.
No wonder the other chaps envy us! Class distinction has gone for good from philanthropy work. Women have found in war-time usefulness a common platform on which they meet in friendly service. IN many an office and shop nowadays the female staff is bearing heavier burdens than ever before, because so much of the work which usually falls to the men must, in their absence, be carried on by the women. If our girls are to stand the extra strain without injury, their health must be built up to the highest possible point, and in this connection there is nothing more valuable than regular and carefully thought out exercise, which will brace up all the muscles grown flabby from much sitting, and give the general air of well-being which follows sound physical activities.
Yet how few girls ever have this necessary exercise, and how many round shoulders and white faces one sees among this class of worker.
The teacher hurries to and from school, the business girl goes to her work by tube or tram, and home again in the evening. Though started in time of war, with a war motive behind it all, the Reserve soon showed that it is likely to live on long after peace is signed, as a permanent organization and club for young women workers.
The immediate object of the Reserve was to train a body of girls who, expert, disciplined, and efficient, could do much to stem panic in the event of a German raid by sky or sea. In the same way as the Boy Scouts, in time of need these feminine recruits agreed to act as messengers, despatch riders, signallers, first-aid workers, and generally make the old and helpless of any attacked locality their particular care.
They were to see to the removal of the aged and invalids to places of safety, and undertook other necessary tasks which might be overlooked by the ordinary civilian population in the event of a sudden attack. For responsible work of this sort it was evident that severe and systematic training was needed, and this was afforded to the members of the Volunteer Reserve by a series of evening classes and drills arranged at various local centres in London and provincial towns.
The organization was worked on a strictly military basis, with the Marchioness of Londonderry as Colonel-in-Chief, and the Hon. Evelina Haverfield as Honorary Colonel. These two commanders, with the Staff Officers, formed the Head-quarters Committee in Baker Street, and had control of the whole movement.
The rank and file formed battalions, each of which was governed by a Lieutenant Colonel, with a Major as second in command. Each battalion was divided into eight companies with a Captain and two Lieutenants acting as the commissioned officers in each. Recruits paid an entrance fee of a shilling, and had to attend a certain number of drills before they were pronounced efficient and drafted into the various companies.
It must not be thought that drill was the only sort of training given to this little army of keen, intelligent workers. There were classes for every sort of information likely to be of use in an emergency. The girls learned several methods of signalling, for instance, and there were numerous lectures on first-aid and home nursing. Fencing was an exercise that was taken up with great vigour, and many girls were eager to practise shooting, though of course they would never, in any circumstance, carry fire-arms themselves.
A park at Woking was generously lent for a summer camp, so classes on camp cookery attracted many and wonderful were the concoctions made over an open-air fire! They counted among their numbers not a few motor-cyclists and motor drivers, whose services in a time of sudden danger could be counted upon without doubt.
The enthusiasm of the girls showed how a real want was supplied by the Reserve. Many attended four or five nights a week, winning rapid promotion, which was always from the ranks, and what was more valuable, made wonderful gains in health and spirits.
All over the country the movement spread, and soon there were branches in towns as far apart as Guildford and Gateshead, Brighton and Worcester. Birmingham had a specially high record, for Mrs. It is interesting to note, from a health point of view, that the movement was warmly approved by women doctors, many of whom attended the evening classes in different districts.
Not the least important part of the Reserve work was its social side, which it is hoped to carry on in times of peace by the formation of a big guild for women workers, which should do much to break down the jealousy and class distinctions now existent in the ranks of girl wage-earners. These tents, to the number of or more, grew, in the natural order of things, into the dimensions and usefulness of clubs; and clubs meant social intercourse and games.
An appeal had therefore to be issued to English women to come to the rescue with at least , books and numberless sets of dominoes, bagatelle boards, gramophones, draughts, chess, and puzzles.
Luckily this need was quickly met by donors in all parts of the kingdom and the colonies. In fact, the scope of requirements was speedily widened as unframed pictures, chairs, tables, writing-desks, and pianos also made their appearance; and very quickly the Y. Concerts were also frequently provided by singers who resided in the district.
This opening no doubt was more readily welcomed because by this time there had come a halt in the labours of thousands of work parties held in connection with churches, municipal bodies, and war institutions and associations. At first these parties, it is true, found that the need for sewn and knitted garments was overwhelming, but in an incredibly short space of time the demands of the Red Cross centres, hospitals and other quarters were overtaken.
Hundreds of thousands of blankets were also collected in an emergency and forwarded to the trenches. This body put themselves into touch with hospitals, hospital ships, nursing centres, and other kindred agencies, and soon were able not only to collate a guide to the requirements of the moment, but to advise work parties to the best advantage.
It also secured special facilities for sending parcels of goods to the places where they were most needed. Meanwhile, however, the pinch of war was making itself felt in another direction.
In the autumn of it was noticed that an unexpected amount of unemployment was to be found amongst women engaged in dressmaking and trimming, and other similar trades. This did not decrease, but grew in volume until it attracted the notice of Lady Jane Gathorne Hardy and Lord Plunket, who courageously started various United Work-rooms in London.
These rooms had two objects:. To employ women who, through no fault of their own, were rendered liable to destitution on account of the war. To employ those women in such work as would compete with existing industries as little as possible. No subscriptions were appealed for, but the committee made every effort to secure customers, and their efforts were so successful that they were able to devote a considerable sum, under the heading of profits, to various approved war charities.
More direct work, thanks to Lady Crewe, was also undertaken for the benefit of the woman artist, who quickly found herself enrolled in the ranks of war victims. Workrooms were established at 84, Park Street, W. James de Rothschild, and there, every day, from ten to half-past four, with a brief interval for lunch, were employed a number of women artists making ornaments of various kinds. And the Queen and Princess Mary soon interested themselves in the project, which was quickly organized into profit and success.
Another interesting change in our social life was observed about this time. The patriotic idea gained currency that it was not expedient to employ a large number of able-bodied young men in domestic service when their King and Country needed them; and many society women took the lead in advising their grooms, gardeners, and footmen to enlist, and in employing women in their places.
At the same time the English waitress established herself in quarters that three months previous would have none of her. Coincidentally with the internment of German and Austrian aliens an agitation sprang up against the employment of any foreign waiters, and soon trim, well-clad English waitresses were to be seen in clubs and large residential hotels in London and many establishments up and down the country that had hitherto scorned this type of feminine aid. Nevertheless, the war did not affect one phase of the domestic servant question that for many years had defied solution.
Cook-generals became no more plentiful, although many influential families cut down their staff of domestic servants to the lowest point of efficiency. Experience showed that the discharged maids took the places of the discharged aliens; and the old balance between the supply and demand of domestic help was never seriously affected after the first fortnight of the war, and good servants remained as rare and as difficult to secure as before the war.
It should be noted, however, that women took hold of some most thorny problems in the early months of the war. For instance, some of the most distinguished women in the kingdom early in November, , issued a manifesto "to women of the Empire" in which they did some uncommonly plain speaking about morals of the race. We are called upon to help our soldiers to fight the enemies of demoralization and drink at home; we are called upon to crush these enemies in our own lives and homes and we are called upon so to live as to bequeath a heritage of health and happiness to the children we shall eventually give to the nation.
Amongst others, it had the approval of Lady Smith-Dorrien, who gave to a large meeting of women the following message from her distinguished husband: There is no fuss, no flurry, no friction.
Immediately [after] war was declared there was a call throughout the kingdom, and every suffrage association gathered its members together. The militants immediately called a truce; the non-militant societies suspended much of their active suffrage work. All decided to put the needs of their country in its hour of peril before all other considerations, and while still keeping the suffrage flag flying, to devote their time and energies and money to the alleviation of distress and to the support of the Government, wherever and whenever possible.
There were societies in that Union. All responded magnificently to the call made upon them, and within a few days of the declaration of the war adapted themselves to the new conditions. The National Union determined not to add to the volume of unemployment by dismissing a single member of its staff, either at Head-quarters or among the organizers.
It paid the salaries of nearly workers all over the country who were lent to the local relief committees and other bodies responsible for carrying out the special schemes devised for meeting the conditions caused by the war. The relief work of the National Union spread in many directions, but each direction pointed to one aim—the support of life, moral and physical.
Perhaps the most interesting part of the work of this Union was the establishment of the Active Service League which was initiated by Mrs. Harley, a sister of Viscount French. This organization mobilized 58, subscribers within a few days, and the League opened offices at 50 Parliament Street. Here some two thousand women volunteers were registered, classified, and passed on to organizations needing their services, while from 20 to women in distress—refugees, unemployed, etc.
Here, too, was a workroom where sewing was done, an emergency measure for the absolutely destitute whom the Union could not turn from its doors to starve in the streets. Some of the garments made in the workrooms are both artistic and ingenious.
That the work is also practical was recently proved by a rather amusing experience. A gentleman appeared in the shop one morning, and challenged the suftragists to show what they could do in the way of making shirts for which he needed a special method of tucking, and particular buttonholes.
Nowhere had he been able to get this done to his satisfaction in London. Could the suffragettes step into the breach? The shop accepted the challenge, and so satisfactory was the result that an order was immediately given. A splendid piece of work of the Active Service League was the organization of a scheme to economize the national food supply.
Suffragists who had been salving the fruit crops and making jam for the winter, received every help and encouragement from their local County Council, and practical demonstrations in bottling and preserving were given and trained cookery instructresses supplied: In some instances, these efforts may result in the birth of a new local industry in the district. The relief of professional women in distress has been one of the latest developments of the National Union, the services of trained women being supplied free to various philanthropic and national institutions.
In the early days of the war it was recognized that the Red Cross Societies of the Allies would be likely to need all the trained help they could obtain, and the Scottish Federation of the N. A committee was formed, with Dr. Elsie Inglis the well-known Edinburgh doctor at its head, and three hospitals were equipped and staffed for the French, Belgian, and Serbian Red Cross Societies.
Gifts and funds came in rapidly, as well as doctors, nurses, orderlies, X-ray experts, secretaries, clerks, cooks, and chauffeurs, so that it was possible to staff the hospitals, from doctor to cook, with women only. In the Serbian Unit, however, there were two men motor-drivers. The French hospital is carrying on its work in the beautiful old Abbaye of Royaumont. Ten years ago the French Government ejected the nuns, and since then the place had been deserted, so that when the Scottish hospital staff arrived they found an apparently impossible task before them.
But all had come prepared for difficulties and prepared to overcome them, so they set to work to clean down walls and floors.
One girl orderly who was an excellent carpenter, made tables, and in a surprisingly short time the hospital was ready to be inspected by the French Military Hospital Authorities, who gave it their cordial approval. Four wards have been fitted up, and an enormous amount of work has been done for the aid of wounded soldiers. The Girton and Newnham unit at Troyes, which is working under the French Military Authorities, was ordered to Salonica, where it formed part of a thousand-bed French hospital working with the French Expeditionary Force.
The Serbian Unit was originally installed at Kragienwatz, twenty-five miles from Belgrade. Despard is president, was helping the wounded at home. The first baby born in the hospital was a Belgian. Their training centre in South Hackney for the manufacture of soft toys proved a big success.
It provided unskilled women with a trade which may later be the nucleus of a home industry hitherto widely practised in Germany. A Bureau of Employment has been opened in connection with this society for getting employment for women in Government departments, and for obtaining other appointments for working women, and for those suited for business and professional careers. The babies of East London in the early days of the war were crying for milk. The East London Federation or Suffragettes heard the cry and supplied their need in an incredibly short space of time.
Within a week of the commencement of the war, Miss Sylvia Pankhurst started in Bow a daily free distribution of milk to the babies of necessitous mothers. Milk depots were also opened simultaneously at Brondey and Canning Town. To provide milk only for the nursing and expectant mothers and the babies was not enough while entire families were in urgent need of daily food, so "cost price" restaurants were opened in Bow, Poplar, and Bromley, where two-course meals might be bought at 1d.
Clothing stalls have been opened at the various centres; new and second-hand clothes may be bought at low prices, and, in urgent cases, clothes are given away. Trade Union rates are paid and the profits go to the workers. In the garment-making factory women are employed at 5d.
The war suddenly deprived many thousands of women in the East End of London of their occupation in all forms of garment-making and as shoemakers, brush-makers, box-makers, flower-makers, and also in sweet and food preserving factories and in other branches of industry.
What these women wanted was work, not charity, and the fine resources and inventive abilities of the East London Federation of Suffragettes have gone far to solve that tragic problem of distress. The United Suffragists men and women , whose supporters include Mrs.
Ayrton Gould, Honorary Secretary of the Society, a much-needed club for working women in Southwark, There the mothers and wives of the men at the Front went for help, advice, recreation, and comfort. One poor soul—a typical case—came in a few hours after her husband had departed for France.
Before the club started, she would probably have had to go to the public-house for the sympathy she wanted. Miss Evelyn Sharp reports that one of the women expressed herself in the warmest terms of approval: One poor mother was brought to the club by a friend, to be cheered up because her husband had just enlisted in Ireland.
There they all were, looking so like him—his coat and his weskit, and his blue tie—it made me cry, it did. From East to West is not a far cry when love and service bind women together. They specialized in Red Cross dresses, aprons, clothing for soldiers, refugees, and work which would otherwise have been done by customers and their friends to the detriment of the paid worker. The girls in the beautiful airy workroom opened by the Society quickly became expert at the new trade and also learnt machine-knitting, so that they are enabled to take large orders for belts, socks, mufflers, mittens, and helmets.
The members rose splendidly to the call made upon them, and a house in South Kensington was opened for the benefit of ladies who were in distress. Many governesses have been stranded owing to the war, and, perhaps, still more difficult has been the position of the "companion" who, in most cases, is of gentle birth and used to refined surroundings.
To these the hostel has been of real assistance. The guests are admitted temporarily and, while there, are helped to find work or make other plans. The International Women Suffrage Alliance has taken a world-wide view of the needs of humanity. French, German, Austrian, Russian, and Hungarian women have alike benefited from the kind ministrations of this admirable body of workers. Bohemians have been in a particularly difficult position.
The condition of Bohemia has prevented their return to their own country, while here they are claimed as alien enemies. Hospitality was at once found for her--first in Hampstead, then in Cumberland, whence she wrote: It organized its offices and the work of its committee so that its relief work should not overlap, and an enormous amount of work has been done in giving employment, providing hospitality, and supplying funds for food, medical aid, and clothing. In one week, however, it became too big for the rooms of the A.
Here, however, it soon outgrew its accommodation and has now, through the generosity of the Duchess of Marlborough found permanent head-quarters in Baker Street.
The Kitchen Department, aided by supplies from the National Food Fund, distributed in four months 28, meals, and lbs. In co-operation with the National Guild of Housecraft, unemployed girls have been given training in domestic work; thousands of handy women have been sent as helpers to various benevolent agencies, and paid employment has been found for women in almost every professional trade and industry.
Ten branches of this big undertaking are establishing in different parts of the country, and some of the largest London firms, besides two in Natal and Cape Town, have given important orders for toys. The interpreting department of the W. Hundreds of interpreters were enrolled; they met the continental trains at all the stations, and ships at the various docks; they provided carefully compiled lists of hotels, boarding houses, and lodgings of all kinds, and investigated and arranged accommodation.
In those early days before the Belgian Relief centre in Kingsway was opened, many hundreds of refugees would have fared very badly without the help of this able band. Their hospitality department has also done colossal work for Belgian and French refugees in supplying both homes and clothing to those who were homeless and destitute.
Some hundreds of women motor-cyclists and motorists who run their own cars and are capable of doing running repairs, have registered in the Motor Department. These cars rendered invaluable service in the early days of the war, meeting trains of refugees, and they have also led the War Refugee Committee, private hospitals officers, and various societies. Ten surgeons, ten dressers, and twenty nurses garbed in grey with that dash of red upon the shoulder capes, formed the detachment which under Sir Alfred Keogh, left London for Belgium "for general service with the Allied troops.
Since then the Red Cross Society has been sending detachments to the Front, grappling with all the horrors that spring upon an army in modern warfare. Not one of the nurses of the Red Cross Society and St. Fancy being grateful for what is, after all, an absolute right—to be looked after when they fall. And they never complain, they are never anything but good and patient and thankful.
I do not know how a man can be good and patient and thankful with only one leg for the rest of his life and all that this crippled condition means. Yet they are, and one learns to know from them what bravery is. Is not this the very least we can do for these wonderful men who are doing much more than laying down their lives for us? Why, the horrors of war are unspeakable, and those brave fellows romp through it all as if it were a picnic. The speaker was a young girl, and her outlook on life had assumed a new and marvellous focus.
For one of the first lessons the Red Cross worker learns is that Courage and Gaiety have a way of travelling hand in hand, and this lesson well learnt does much to relieve the inevitable tension of hospital work.
Take, for example, the description written by Miss Cicely Hamilton, the authoress. Nothing could be more amusing reading than her account of her experiences in the making of a Red Cross Hospital. With entire good humour she tells first of countless skirmishes with red tape officials down on both sides of the Channel. Then she racily narrates how one numbers, packs, and registers in bales and cases the entire hospital equipment and resignedly says good-bye to it while it certainly makes the "Grand Tour," finally arriving when and how it feels inclined, and not in the least when you arranged or expected it!
The bales are then checked off and search parties sent out after the "missing," for items such as bedsteads, drugs, and instruments will be found still to be enjoying the pleasures of the "Grand Tour. Miss Hamilton goes on to tell how the hospital staff finds the plumbing incomplete, and how many other inconveniences, not usually thought trifling, crop up to hinder the great work.
And which the ordinary householder would be holding up hands of horror, these brave women work away, with smiles and joking comments, establishing a thoroughly efficient hospital in the midst of what seemed to the mere onlooker only hopeless chaos. There are some who hold that only fully trained professional nurses should be allowed to assist in the care of the wounded, and we gladly pay our tribute to women like Dr.
Mary Garrett Anderson, Dr. Elsie Inglis, and many other splendid women surgeons and doctors, and fully qualified and certificated nurses. At the same time, we must recognize that the Red Cross Societies of the Allied Nations have found it possible to make use of personal service from girls and women of the leisured classes who have worked sufficiently to form an invaluable National Nursing Service. Nothing that Her Majesty could do to further the growth of this public service has been left undone.
When the new King George V Red Cross Hospital was fitting up a mortuary chapel, Queen Alexandra sent a brass cross and two beautiful vases for the altar, with a few tender words as an accompanying message.
It is these little watchful kindnesses which so endear the Queen to the hearts of the people. She never needs to be told what is wanted. Millicent, Duchess of Sutherland, has rendered splendid service to the nation during the war. It consisted of only eight trained nurses and one surgeon, Mr. During six weeks of German occupation one hundred wounded French and Belgian soldiers were tended in the Convent of Notre Dame.
In time the wounded were removed to Germany, and the Ambulance was sent by the German Director of Medical Services to Maubeuge, and after many vicissitudes passed safely to England through Holland at the end of September, At the end of October the Duchess went to Dunkirk with some Ambulance cars.
She arrived at the height of the Yser fighting, when thousands of wounded French and Belgians were pouring through the town. The hospitals were filled to overflowing, and the Duchess was asked to start an auxiliary hospital in a building at Malo-les-Bains, close to the sea.
This she consented to do, and, after many difficulties and owing entirely to the generosity of British and American friends, funds were secured to run a hospital of beds which was added to the convoy of seven Ambulance cars, already at work day and night. The whole Unit retained its original name of the "Millicent Sutherland Ambulance," and hospital continued its work at Malo until the third bombardment of Dunkirk in the spring of , when it was considered wise to move wounded to Bourbourg, some twelve miles outside of Dunkirk.
At Bourbourg the hospital became a Tent Unit, was well known as the Camp in the Oat Field " It excited a great deal of interest, as the wounded were largely treated in the open air and so remarkably well. During a whole year leading members of the British Army Medical Service have visited the hospital, and British physicians have occasionally come from the Front in consultation. All have expressed great approval of its organization and efficiency.
The Duchess herself has acted as Directress in station to all matters of supplies and the pecuniary import of the hospital, which has been recognized by the British Red Cross since last April. The Duchess of Westminster, another hard-working Duchess, started a hospital at Le Touquet in October, , where it has been running ever since in the Casino.
Up to the time of the conversion men and officers passed through, and since then officers have been tended there. This hospital is thought to be one of the best in France, and the Duchess has superintended it entirely herself. The new Viceroy of Ireland and his beautiful young wife are very interested in ambulance work. Before they [left] to take up their duties in Ireland, fleets of these wagons of mercy, each with its Red Cross sign on the grey canvas cover, could be seen daily in the courtyard before their house.
The leaders of the nursing service do not forget the kitchen in these days of sound, practical common sense. The new "flying kitchen" goes on to the field of battle with each ambulance convoy. Hot beef-tea, soup, coffee, cocoa, and milk are given to the wounded and exhausted men, and the huge water tank and boiler that form part of each "kitchen" are invaluable when new dressings are needed on the way to the clearing hospital.
These kitchens are of necessity costly things. The women of various counties clubbed together to meet the expense of providing others, Hampshire and Shropshire being among the first to lend help in this very practical direction. Here the travelling soldier or sailor can get a free meal at any hour between 8 a. An average of men or more are thus fed per day. The authorities are immensely pleased with this scheme, as the men are kept away from the public-house, and the men also greatly appreciate the interest shown in them by the thirty or forty lady workers.
These canteens arc now being established at most of our big railway stations, and are doing invaluable work. THOUGH women play so large a part in every war, and one instinctively thinks of them as nurses for the wounded, one does not associate them with the actual horrible work of fire and slaughter. Familiarity has bred such stoicism in the face of danger that women have been known to milk their few remaining cows within range of constantly-dropping shells, and to trudge miles along dangerous roads, bearing baskets of provisions for the husbands, sons or brothers they expected to find in every trench they passed.
One British war correspondent, indeed, told how here and there he had seen family parties sitting on newly turned earth at the bottom of the trenches—father, mother and children, some mites in arms, talking earnestly to each other and sharing the scantiest of meals.
Even during the raging battle of Mona women and girls found their way fearlessly into the trenches with food and fruit for the fighting men. One girl, hardly more than seventeen, faced the terrific noise of conflict at the peril of shell and bullet quite undismayed. In Russia, many of the peasant women, used in times of peace to the hardest physical labour in the fields, have an enduring strength which is uncommon among Western races, and quite large numbers of them have not only helped to dig trenches, but have, under various disguises and pretexts joined the fighting forces.
A Petrograd writer assures us that the most successful conspirators were the masculine-looking peasant women of the northern provinces. Surely the veteran of them all must be Nadezlda Ornatsky, woman of Archangel, who posed as a man during a large part of the Russo-Japanese war of ten years ago, and so had little difficulty in reassuming the part of a private in August, Only after the battle of Lubin-Krasnik was her sex discovered.
Another Russian named Linba Uglicki was actually present at four different East Prussia or Polish engagements, and was slightly wounded. It is said she feared nothing but the ordeal of crossing bayonets with the foe. Pride of family is a strong emotion among all Russian peasantry and it drove another woman to take up arms when her husband shirked his military summons. She impersonated the coward to preserve the family reputation from tarnish, and at Gumbinnen the action cost her her life.
Perhaps the most thrilling story of this nature relates to the adventures of Lyubov Ouglitsky, called the "Augustovo Amazon," a twenty-one year old girl from Smolensk. Lyubov--whose name means love--has taken part in four big battles, in her masculine disguise, and had not sickness intervened, she no doubt would still be on the firing-line. The girl warrior took part in a fierce fight for a village, which ended in the village being destroyed.
She says she was not terrified as long as the Germans were on the offensive. But when her shattered battalion was ordered to charge with the bayonet a fearful dread seized her. To shoot I did not mind," she said. I realized that if I now killed a man in this way I should know it, and I should remember it to my last day.
I prayed that I myself might be shot. Ouglitski fought at Augustovo in September, , also shortly afterwards in a desperate struggle the Niemen. After the last fight she thought of deserting, but feared she would be captured or shot. She kept the secret of her sex by pretending to be particularly rough and callous.
Finally her solitary career was ended by a slight wound front a shell splinter. A woman who passed as Private Norman Nesmetooft was killed outside Suvalki.
On the day before her death she made a forced march with her battalion of 42 versts about twenty-six miles. It is given to few women to don male attire and fight side by side with their brothers, but since the war began many have shown in more legitimate fields a quiet heroism, a staunch cleaving to duty, for which no praise is too high. Similar cases have been related in peace as well as in conflict, but no records of war heroism can rank above this tale of duty well done.
Nearer and nearer, it is recorded, came the thunder of the German guns. Shells began to burst on the outskirts of the town, then in the very streets. Ominous flames crackled, leaping around the houses. Shrapnel bullets were raining on all sides of the telephone exchange, tiIl the two operators stayed unflinchingly at their posts.
Whatever peril might threaten from s[illegible] or flames, they never thought of seeking safety in flight, for well they knew that along the line which they were serving were passing the orders the Belgian staff directing the safe retreat of the Belgian forces. The men in their agony would crush their fingers harder and harder, but they never uttered a sound.
Other British women, in breeches and great boots, went out under heavy fire near Nieuport, we are told, with the equanimity that one would associate with an afternoon drive in the park. They moved about among the great holes which the shells were tearing in the ground, seeking and caring for the wounded with as much ease as if taking tea in their own drawing-rooms. Lady Dorothie Fielding, the daughter of the Earl of Denbigh, worked at a small cottage hospital with her motor ambulance with shells flying round; and Miss Jessie Borthwick, a niece of the late Lord Glenesk, nursed the wounded in Belgium under conditions that would make the stoutest heart quail, with the result that at Oudecappelle she herself was wounded.
Later, at Dixmude, she tells us she came across some German soldiers who from cellars fired on her and her companions as they rushed about with stretchers!
The rifle fire was incessant, but we picked out all the men it was possible to move. That night, too, we had to burn piles of the German dead, for they had been throwing them into the river and spoiling water. Side by side with this is the story of Mrs. Clair Stobart, who went to Belgium with a complete hospital equipment and who, while endeavouring to get to Holland from Brussels, was imprisoned by the Germans and searched six times, narrowly escaping from being shot as a spy.
Stobart nursed the wounded amid a rain of shells, and when this fire endangered the lives of her ninety odd patients, Mrs. Stobart and her assistants, who included Miss S.
Macnaughten, the novelist, carried their charges down into the cellars on their backs. This gallant band of twenty eventually rode out of Antwerp, through blazing streets, in London omnibuses laden with ammunition and driven by British soldiers.
Stobart has organised relief expeditions to nurse the Serbian wounded. Even the doubtful excitements of trench work and actual "under fire" experiences were denied to Miss Margaret C.
Ryle, the young daughter of an English bishop, who at the outbreak of war was in Russia, acting as coach to a girl preparing for Cambridge. Miss Ryle offered herself to the authorities for hospital work, passed the necessary examination, of course in Russian, and, after a probationary period in a base hospital at Moscow, was transferred to the hospital train service running to and from the front and Moscow--most trying and exhausting work, consisting as it did of tending wounded straight from the battlefield, hampered by the restrictions of a long journey.
A hospital train was being fitted up for Serbia, where the condition of the wounded was at that time truly appalling, and Miss Ryle accompanied it to Nish. A few days later she died from the effects of a mountain fall while going about her duties. Serbian hospital work claimed another gallant victim last July, when Mrs. Percy Dearmer died of enteric contracted while nursing the wounded. Three months later her younger son, of the R.
Like Serbia, France has claimed an English victim. Despite the most persistent efforts made to save her by the American and Spanish ministers in Brussels, Miss Cavell languished ten weeks in prison, and was then tried by court-martial and executed in the middle of the night, within nine hours of her conviction.
Fortified by a life spent in ministering to others, the doomed nurse behaved throughout with a fine, quiet courage that never failed. I must also bear my enemies no resentment for their treatment of me. The news of her heroic death evoked wild outbursts of indignation not only in this country, but among neutrals, and even in the breasts of the Germans themselves. It is said that the firing party visibly trembled, and with one accord fired over her head, so that their officer had to do the deadly work himself by means of a revolver held to her ear.
A memorial service, attended by Queen Alexandra in person was held at St. Another English nurse who deserves mention is Miss Violetta Thurston, who was ordered by the Germans to leave Brussels, where she had been doing excellent work.
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